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Botnets are networks of compromised computers controlled under a common command and control channel. Recognized as one of the most serious security threats on current Internet infrastructure, botnets are often hidden in existing applications, e.g. IRC, HTTP, or peer-to-peer, which makes botnet detection a challenging problem. In this paper we propose a new,(More)
Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by(More)
The substantia nigra gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is crucial for seizure control. Our previous work indicates that in 16-day-old rat pups, nigral administration of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol facilitates flurothyl-induced seizures, whereas it suppresses seizures in adult rats. To determine whether the proconvulsant effect of muscimol in rat(More)
Rats were implanted with infusion cannulas in the substantia nigra (SN), and intracranial electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram (EEG). These rats received intravenous injections of bicuculline, producing repetitive high voltage spike-and-wave complexes. Pretreatment with bilateral intranigral infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol reduced the(More)
We studied the effect of striatal dopamine depletion induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice on kainic acid (KA) evoked seizures. MPTP, 36 mg/kgp i.p. for 3 days, caused an 80% drop of striatal dopamine. Animals pretreated with MPTP, plus controls treated with saline, were challenged with five different convulsant doses of KA(More)
Baclofen-displaced [3H]GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) binding to GABAB sites was assayed in brain regions obtained from adult and 14- to 17-day-old rats. The substantia nigra of rat pups exhibited a 3- to 5-fold higher density (Bmax) of GABAB binding sites than the nigra of adult rats. In contrast, the density of GABAB sites was lower in hippocampal and(More)
The administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to C57 black mice causes an acute seizure syndrome the severity of which is dose dependent; there is also a good correlation between the seizure inducing potential of MPTP and the neostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion caused by MPTP. The simultaneous administration of MPTP and MAO B(More)
GABAergic transmission in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) has an important role in the control of experimental seizures. In the flurothyl seizure model, SNR microinjection of the selective GABAA receptor agonist muscimol results in a biphasic dose-response curve in adults: Intermediate doses are anticonvulsant, but high doses have proconvulsant(More)