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Botnets are networks of compromised computers controlled under a common command and control channel. Recognized as one of the most serious security threats on current Internet infrastructure, botnets are often hidden in existing applications, e.g. IRC, HTTP, or peer-to-peer, which makes botnet detection a challenging problem. In this paper we propose a new,(More)
GABAergic transmission in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) has an important role in the control of experimental seizures. In the flurothyl seizure model, SNR microinjection of the selective GABAA receptor agonist muscimol results in a biphasic dose-response curve in adults: Intermediate doses are anticonvulsant, but high doses have proconvulsant(More)
Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by(More)
Bilateral intranigral microinfusion of antagonist analogs of substance P significantly attenuated convulsions induced by maximal electroshock or intravenous bicuculline in rats. Infusions of substance P antagonists placed adjacent to the substantia nigra in the vicinity of the lateral hypothalamus were without anticonvulsant action. Our data indicate an as(More)
The substantia nigra gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is crucial for seizure control. Our previous work indicates that in 16-day-old rat pups, nigral administration of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol facilitates flurothyl-induced seizures, whereas it suppresses seizures in adult rats. To determine whether the proconvulsant effect of muscimol in rat(More)
To determine whether the substantia nigra GABAergic anticonvulsant effects depend on GABAB receptor activation, we tested the effects of intranigral CGP 35,348 (a GABAB receptor antagonist) alone or in combination with gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG; a GABA-transaminase inhibitor) on flurothyl seizures in rat pups and adult rats. In pups, nigral infusions of CGP(More)
Bilateral lesions of substantia nigra (SN) were evaluated for anticonvulsant effects in rats. Electrolytic and kainic acid lesions of SN reduced bicuculline-elicited seizure activity; lesions in the ventral midbrain tegmentum adjacent to SN were without an anticonvulsant effect. Lesions of SN also reduced the incidence and duration of tonic hindlimb(More)
Rats were implanted with infusion cannulas in the substantia nigra (SN), and intracranial electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram (EEG). These rats received intravenous injections of bicuculline, producing repetitive high voltage spike-and-wave complexes. Pretreatment with bilateral intranigral infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol reduced the(More)