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Florida red tides are a natural phenomenon caused by dense aggregations of single cell or several species of unicellular organisms. Patches of discolored water, dead or dying fish, and respiratory irritants in the air often characterize these algal blooms. In humans, two distinct clinical entities, depending on the route of exposure, are associated with(More)
Brevetoxins are lipid-soluble polyether marine toxins of unique structure and pharmacological function. Toxins are active in vivo in the nanomolar to picomolar concentration range and in vitro in isolated neuromuscular or giant axon preparations and in single-cell or subcellular model systems. Their effect is excitatory, mediated by the enhancement of(More)
Brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3), produced by marine dinoflagellates (Ptychodiscus brevis), is a lipophilic 11-ring polyether molecule that binds with high affinity to site 5 of the voltage-sensitive sodium (Na+) channel. The effects of PbTx-3 and its derivatives were studied in cell-attached membrane patches on neurons dissociated from neonatal rat nodose ganglia by(More)
A range of extrinsic signals, including afferent activity, affect neuronal growth and plasticity. Neuronal activity regulates intracellular Ca(2+), and activity-dependent calcium signaling has been shown to regulate dendritic growth and branching (Konur and Ghosh, 2005). NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase(More)
The marine toxin gambierol, a polyether ladder toxin derived from the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, was evaluated for interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) cultures. At concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM, gambierol alone had no effect on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration(More)
Potent marine neurotoxins known as brevetoxins are produced by the 'red tide' dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. They kill large numbers of fish and cause illness in humans who ingest toxic filter-feeding shellfish or inhale toxic aerosols. The toxins are also suspected of having been involved in events in which many manatees and dolphins died, but this has(More)
Neuronal activity regulates brain development and synaptic plasticity through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Intracellular sodium ([Na(+)](i)) also exerts a regulatory influence on NMDAR channel activity, and [Na(+)](i) may, therefore, function as a signaling molecule. In an attempt to mimic the influence(More)
BACKGROUND In previous studies we demonstrated statistically significant changes in reported symptoms for lifeguards, general beach goers, and persons with asthma, as well as statistically significant changes in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in asthmatics, after exposure to brevetoxins in Florida red tide (Karenia brevis bloom) aerosols. OBJECTIVES In(More)
This study seeks to find a relationship between economic growth and income inequality. Past studies remain divided about this subject, where some find there to be a positive relationship and others support a negative relationship. Single and multiple linear regression models were formed using data from 2010. This study found a positive relationship between(More)
Synaptosomes were isolated from turtle and rat brains to determine whether differences in brain ion channel densities accounted for the turtle's ability to survive anoxia compared with the mammal. The Na(+)-channel binding neurotoxin brevetoxin showed high-affinity specific binding in both turtle and rat synaptosomes, suggesting specific ligand-receptor(More)