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BACKGROUND In patients with louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis infection), antimicrobial treatment is often followed by sudden fever, rigors, and persistent hypotension (Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions) that are associated with increases in plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. We(More)
Borrelia recurrentis, the cause of louse-borne relapsing fever, has until recently been considered noncultivable, which has prevented characterization of this spirochete. We successfully cultivated 18 strains from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever and present the initial characterization of these isolates. Electron microscopy revealed spirochetal(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptococcal disease is estimated to be responsible for significant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, only scarce epidemiology data exists. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia in Ethiopia. METHODS Consecutive adult HIV-infected patients from two public HIV clinics in Addis Ababa,(More)
Massive release of tumor necrosis factor is responsible for the potentially fatal larisch-Herxheimer reaction that follows antibiotic treatment of relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis. We have undertaken the quantitative purification of the components of B. recurrentis that stimulate human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor. We show that the(More)
A one year (January 1-December 31, 2000) prospective study of consecutive HIV seropositive patients admitted to the medical wards to Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital was made to determine the morbidity, mortality, and spectrum of HIV-associated disease among medical inpatients. During the study period, there were 1813 medical admissions and 568 hospital(More)
Severe Jarisch Herxheimer reaction (J-HR) precipitated by antibiotic treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is associated with a transient, marked rise in circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Ovine polyclonal anti-TNF alpha antibody fragments (Fab) were used in a randomized double(More)
BACKGROUND Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) improves the longevity of HIV patients. However, the side effect of the drugs leads to development of chronic metabolic and cardiovascular complications. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the metabolic abnormalities and lipodystrophy among adult(More)
The restriction endonuclease (RE) technique was used to compare 172 meningococcal group A strains collected between 1969 and 1990, mainly from countries of the so-called African Meningitis Belt, the Gambia and Ethiopia. The 64 strains from various African countries (Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Morocco, Djibouti) were distributed within 3 main(More)
BACKGROUND Oral lesions are often characteristic in HIV patients and in the majority of cases can be diagnosed by their clinical features alone. To date there is no study addressing the prevalence of oral and perioral lesions in HIV patients in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES To assess prevalence of oral and perioral manifestations, the clinical symptoms of oral(More)