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BACKGROUND In patients with louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis infection), antimicrobial treatment is often followed by sudden fever, rigors, and persistent hypotension (Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions) that are associated with increases in plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. We(More)
Borrelia recurrentis, the cause of louse-borne relapsing fever, has until recently been considered noncultivable, which has prevented characterization of this spirochete. We successfully cultivated 18 strains from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever and present the initial characterization of these isolates. Electron microscopy revealed spirochetal(More)
BACKGROUND Faculty turn-over affects both workers and organizations. Turnover of faculty and researchers is increasing alarmingly and costing the universities and the country at large. Fast turnover of health professionals from the health system and from academic institutions has recently received substantial attention from both academia and health sector(More)
Massive release of tumor necrosis factor is responsible for the potentially fatal larisch-Herxheimer reaction that follows antibiotic treatment of relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis. We have undertaken the quantitative purification of the components of B. recurrentis that stimulate human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor. We show that the(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptococcal disease is estimated to be responsible for significant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, only scarce epidemiology data exists. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia in Ethiopia. METHODS Consecutive adult HIV-infected patients from two public HIV clinics in Addis Ababa,(More)
A one year (January 1-December 31, 2000) prospective study of consecutive HIV seropositive patients admitted to the medical wards to Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital was made to determine the morbidity, mortality, and spectrum of HIV-associated disease among medical inpatients. During the study period, there were 1813 medical admissions and 568 hospital(More)
278 patients with pyogenic meningitis admitted to the Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, between January and December 1988 were studied prospectively to describe the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features and outcome of infection. Fifty-nine per cent of the patients were admitted in the hot dry season between January and the(More)
Severe Jarisch Herxheimer reaction (J-HR) precipitated by antibiotic treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is associated with a transient, marked rise in circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Ovine polyclonal anti-TNF alpha antibody fragments (Fab) were used in a randomized double(More)