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Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are accompanied by significant morbidity, which persists despite the use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While activated microglia play a role in pathogenesis, changes in their immune effector functions, including phagocytosis and proinflammatory signaling(More)
Despite the ability of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) to reduce viral burden to nearly undetectable levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to persist in as many as half the patients living with this disease. There is growing consensus that the actual substrate for HAND is destruction(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a significant source of disability in the HIV-infected population. Even with stringent adherence to anti-retroviral therapy, >50% of patients living with HIV-1 will develop HAND (Heaton et al., 2010). Because suppression of viral replication alone is not enough to stop HAND(More)
Traditionally in neuroscience, in vivo two photon imaging of the murine central nervous system has either involved the use of open-skull or thinned-skull preparations. While the open-skull technique is very versatile, it is not optimal for studying microglia because it is invasive and can cause microglial activation. Even though the thinned-skull approach(More)
The destruction of normal synaptic architecture is the main pathogenetic substrate in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), but the sequence of cellular events underlying this outcome is not completely understood. Our recent work in a mouse model of HAND using a single intraparenchymal injection of the HIV-1 regulatory protein trans-activator of(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the single most common genetic cause of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), both of which share pathogenetic and neurologic similarities with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Pathologic LRRK2 activity may also contribute to neuroinflammation, because(More)
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