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Vision is dependent on ordered neuronal representations or maps of visual space. These maps depend on precise connections between retinal axons and their targets cells. In mammals, nerve fibres from right and left eyes produce congruent maps of contralateral visual space in adjacent layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We have identified an(More)
A wide variety of hybrid poplar clones are being introduced for intensive culture biomass production, but the potential clonal or genotypic response to increasing tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO,), ozone (O,), and their interactions are unknown. To study these effects, we exposed five different hybrid Populus clones to increased concentrations of CO,, O,,(More)
BACKGROUND Owners' perceptions and priorities regarding quality of life (QoL) are important considerations given the unknown efficacy of many commonly administered medications, stress of hospital visits, difficulties providing home care, and personal choices including euthanasia. OBJECTIVE To describe the relative importance of quality versus quantity of(More)
The achiasmatic mutation is a remarkable and rare visual system mutation carried in a line of black sheepdogs. In affected animals, the optic chiasm is missing, and each retina projects entirely to the ipsilateral hemisphere. As a result of this navigational error, maps of visual space in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) have a unique structure with(More)
An autosomal recessive mutation carried in a family of black Belgian sheepdogs eliminates the optic chiasm--all retinal ganglion cell axons extend directly into the ipsilateral optic tract. One key issue we are trying to resolve is whether the retina or the chiasm is the principal site of mutant gene action. In this study, we have examined retinas of(More)
Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for assessing farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency domain analyses may provide a sensitive and reliable measure of(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To compare the effects on oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and ECG changes of endoscopy alone, sedation followed by endoscopy, and sedation followed by endoscopy with supplemental oxygen (O2) during upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. STUDY DESIGN Randomized trial. SETTING Outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration facilitates emergency diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) in people. Its utility to discriminate between dyspneic cats with CHF vs. primary respiratory disease requires further assessment. Our objectives were to determine if NT-proBNP (1) differentiates(More)
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital cardiac disease in the dog and generally leads to severe clinical signs, including left-sided congestive heart failure. Historically, definitive treatment consisted of surgical ligation; however, the use of vascular occlusion devices by minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity in(More)