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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows for quantification of motor system excitability. While routinely used in humans, application in other species is rare and little is known about the characteristics of animal TMS. The unique features of TMS, i.e., predominantly interneuronal stimulation at low intensity and non-invasiveness, are particularly(More)
NMDA receptors in mice were mutated by gene targeting to substitute asparagine (N) in position 598 of the NR1 subunit to glutamine (Q) or arginine (R). Animals expressing exclusively the mutated NR1 alleles, NR1(Q/Q) and NR1(-/R) mice, developed a perinatally lethal phenotype mainly characterized by respiratory failure. The dysfunctions were partially(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE This randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC) versus dose-matched therapeutic exercises (DMTEs) on upper-extremity (UE) function in stroke survivors and uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine effects on cortical reorganization. METHODS A(More)
CONTEXT Reorganization in central motor networks occurs during early recovery from hemiparetic stroke. In chronic stroke survivors, specific rehabilitation therapy can improve upper extremity function. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that in patients who have chronic motor impairment following stroke, specific rehabilitation therapy that improves arm(More)
We employed retrograde axonal tracing techniques and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry to identify NOS-containing neuronal populations within the lumbosacral spinal cord and determine whether these project to the major pelvic ganglion in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat. Immunohistochemical localizations(More)
Mice were generated expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) promoter. Green fluorescence was observed in, and restricted to, GnRH-immunopositive neuronal somata in the olfactory bulb, ganglion terminale, septal nuclei, diagonal band of Broca (DBB), preoptic area (POA), and caudal(More)
Neurological injury, such as from cerebral hypoxia, appears to cause complex changes in the shape of evoked potential (EP) signals. To characterize such changes we analyze EP signals with the aid of scaling functions called wavelets. In particular, we consider multiresolution wavelets that are a family of orthonormal functions. In the time domain, the(More)
We describe the distribution and characteristics of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in rat spinal cord using a polyclonal affinity-purified antibody against rat cerebellar nitric oxide synthase. Numerous neurons were stained throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Cell bodies, dendrites and axons stained in a uniform manner.(More)
It was shown recently that functional activation across brain motor areas during locomotion and foot movements are similar but differ substantially from activation related to upper extremity movement (Miyai [2001]: Neuroimage 14:1186-1192). The activation pattern may be a function of the behavioral context of the movement rather than of its mechanical(More)
It is assumed that somatosensory input is required for motor learning and recovery from focal brain injury. In rodents and other mammals, corticocortical projections between somatosensory and motor cortices are modified by patterned input. Whether and how motor cortex function is modulated by somatosensory input to support motor learning is largely unknown.(More)