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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE This randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC) versus dose-matched therapeutic exercises (DMTEs) on upper-extremity (UE) function in stroke survivors and uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine effects on cortical reorganization. METHODS A(More)
CONTEXT Reorganization in central motor networks occurs during early recovery from hemiparetic stroke. In chronic stroke survivors, specific rehabilitation therapy can improve upper extremity function. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that in patients who have chronic motor impairment following stroke, specific rehabilitation therapy that improves arm(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows for quantification of motor system excitability. While routinely used in humans, application in other species is rare and little is known about the characteristics of animal TMS. The unique features of TMS, i.e., predominantly interneuronal stimulation at low intensity and non-invasiveness, are particularly(More)
The amount of messenger RNA encoding human inducible nitric oxide synthase and the presence and distribution of NADPH diaphorase were determined in tissue sections from multiple sclerosis (MS) and control brains. Levels of human nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA were markedly elevated in MS brains when compared to normal control brains. NADPH diaphorase(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Perihematomal edema (PHE) can worsen outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Reports suggest that blood degradation products lead to PHE. We hypothesized that hematoma evacuation will reduce PHE volume and that treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) will not exacerbate it. METHODS Minimally(More)
We describe the distribution and characteristics of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in rat spinal cord using a polyclonal affinity-purified antibody against rat cerebellar nitric oxide synthase. Numerous neurons were stained throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Cell bodies, dendrites and axons stained in a uniform manner.(More)
Neurological injury, such as from cerebral hypoxia, appears to cause complex changes in the shape of evoked potential (EP) signals. To characterize such changes we analyze EP signals with the aid of scaling functions called wavelets. In particular, we consider multiresolution wavelets that are a family of orthonormal functions. In the time domain, the(More)
It was shown recently that functional activation across brain motor areas during locomotion and foot movements are similar but differ substantially from activation related to upper extremity movement (Miyai [2001]: Neuroimage 14:1186-1192). The activation pattern may be a function of the behavioral context of the movement rather than of its mechanical(More)
It is assumed that somatosensory input is required for motor learning and recovery from focal brain injury. In rodents and other mammals, corticocortical projections between somatosensory and motor cortices are modified by patterned input. Whether and how motor cortex function is modulated by somatosensory input to support motor learning is largely unknown.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke often impairs gait thereby reducing mobility and fitness and promoting chronic disability. Gait is a complex sensorimotor function controlled by integrated cortical, subcortical, and spinal networks. The mechanisms of gait recovery after stroke are not well understood. This study examines the hypothesis that progressive(More)