Daniel F. Clark

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Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to cellular receptors and subsequent conformational changes that culminates in fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Recent structural information has revealed that these conformational transitions are regulated by three conserved but potentially flexible layers(More)
Increasing interest in production of protein-based pharmaceuticals (biotherapeutics) is accompanied by an increased need for verification of protein folding and correct disulfide bonding. Recombinant protein expression may produce aberrant disulfide bonds and could result in safety concerns or decreased efficacy. Thus, the thorough analysis of disulfide(More)
Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly used in fragmenting N-linked glycopeptides in their mass spectral analyses to complement collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The glycan remains intact through ETD, while the peptide backbone is cleaved, providing the sequence of amino acids for a glycopeptide. Nonetheless, data analysis is a(More)
The viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the major target for antibody (Ab)-mediated vaccine development against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although several recombinant Env antigens have been evaluated in clinical trials, only the surface glycoprotein, gp120, (from HIV-1 subtype B, MN, and subtype CRF_01AE, A244) used in the ALVAC(More)
Studying protein O-glycosylation remains an analytical challenge. Different from N-linked glycans, the O-glycosylation site is not within a known consensus sequence. Additionally, O-glycans are heterogeneous with numerous potential modification sites. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is the method of choice in analyzing these glycopeptides since the(More)
Disulfide bonds are a post-translational modification (PTM) that can be scrambled or shuffled to non-native bonds during recombinant expression, sample handling, or sample purification. Currently, mapping of disulfide bonds is not easy because of various sample requirements and data analysis difficulties. One step towards facilitating this difficult work is(More)
The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the manufacture of innovator and biosimilar biotherapeutics has increased tremendously in recent years. From a structural perspective, mAbs have high disulfide bond content, and the correct disulfide connectivity is required for proper folding and to maintain their biological activity. Therefore, disulfide linkage(More)
Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly used in fragmenting N-linked glycopeptides in their mass spectral analyses to complement collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The glycan remains intact through ETD, while the peptide backbone is cleaved, providing the sequence of amino acids for a glycopeptide. Nonetheless, data analysis is a(More)
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