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gamma-Aminobutyric acid (a simple amino acid and potent neurotransmitter in human brain and other tissues of higher animals) and certain of its congeners rapidly and synchronously induce planktonic larvae of the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, to settle and commence behavioral and developmental metamorphosis. These naturally occurring inducers of algal(More)
Structural materials in nature exhibit remarkable designs with building blocks, often hierarchically arranged from the nanometer to the macroscopic length scales. We report on the structural properties of biosilica observed in the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella sp. Consolidated, nanometer-scaled silica spheres are arranged in well-defined microscopic(More)
Despite its inherent mechanical fragility, silica is widely used as a skeletal material in a great diversity of organisms ranging from diatoms and radiolaria to sponges and higher plants. In addition to their micro- and nanoscale structural regularity, many of these hard tissues form complex hierarchically ordered composites. One such example is found in(More)
The silica skeleton of the deep-sea sponge Euplectella aspergillum was recently shown to be structured over at least six levels of hierarchy with a clear mechanical functionality. In particular, the skeleton is built of laminated spicules that consist of alternating layers of silica and organic material. In the present work, we investigated the(More)
Many cephalopods exhibit remarkable dermal iridescence, a component of their complex, dynamic camouflage and communication. In the species Euprymna scolopes, the light-organ iridescence is static and is due to reflectin protein-based platelets assembled into lamellar thin-film reflectors called iridosomes, contained within iridescent cells called(More)
Hox genes encode a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that regulate anteroposterior patterning mechanisms in insects and vertebrates and are expressed along this axis in a range of bilaterians. Here we present the developmental expression of a Scr/Hox5 gene in the gastropod mollusc Haliotis. In Haliotis, embryogenesis yields a non-feeding(More)
Habitual smokers frequently report that when they are stressed smoking helps them to relax. One potential explanation for the reported stress ameliorating effect of smoking is that cigarette consumption (nicotine self-administration) may decrease the sympathetic autonomic nervous system activity which is associated with the stress response. In the present(More)
  • H M Cuthbertson, K S B Cobbold, Wightman, R M Strope, Adams, Wightman +5 others
  • 1999
cosmetics 1–3. The manufacture of these materials typically requires high temperatures, high pressures or the use of caustic chemicals. By contrast, the biological production of amorphous silica, the simplest siloxane [(SiO 2) n ], is accomplished under mild physiological conditions, producing a remarkable diversity of exquisitely structured shells, spines,(More)
The regulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) activators cholera toxin and the GTP analog 5-guanylyl imidophosphate, the second messenger diacylglycerol, and certain diamino acids all facilitate (amplify) the settlement and metamorphic responses of planktonic larvae of Haliotis rufescens (marine mollusc) to morphogenetic chemical stimuli. In(More)
Swimming planktonic larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens require exogenous GABA or its homologs for induction of their genetically programed behavioral and developmental metamorphosis to the adult form. This requirement is stereochemically specific and absolute; GABA at 10(-6) M is fully effective in the induction of cellular(More)