Daniel E Kaufmann

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Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells in mice. Blockade of this pathway using antibodies against the(More)
This paper presents estimates of six dimensions of governance covering 199 countries and territories for four time periods: 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002. These indicators are based on several hundred individual variables measuring perceptions of governance, drawn from 25 separate data sources constructed by 18 different organizations. We assign these(More)
In recent years, the growing interest of academics and policymakers in governance has been reflected in the proliferation cross-country indices measuring various aspects of governance. In this paper we explain how a simple variant of an unobserved components model can be used to combine the information from these different sources into aggregate governance(More)
Across 69 countries, higher tax rates are associated with less unofficial activity as a percent of GDP but corruption is associated with more unofficial activity. Entrepreneurs go underground not to avoid official taxes but to reduce the burden of bureaucracy and corruption. Dodging the ‘grabbing hand’ in this way reduces tax revenues as a percent of both(More)
In progressive viral infection, antiviral T cell function is impaired by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report that the inhibitory immunoregulatory receptor CTLA-4 was selectively upregulated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–specific CD4+ T cells but not CD8+ T cells in all categories of HIV-infected subjects evaluated, with the exception of(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been documented in a minority of HIV-infected individuals. The mechanisms behind this outcome remain largely unknown, and a better understanding of them will likely influence future vaccine strategies. METHODS HIV-specific T cell and antibody responses as well as host(More)
THE ECONOMIES of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) escaped communism with a heavy burden. When central planning collapsed, they continued to suffer from widespread political control of economic activity. Such politicization had to be reduced significantly for small business formation and growth to begin. In recent years, some of these(More)
CONTEXT Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related opportunistic illnesses (Ols) continue to occur after initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Risk factors for clinical progression to Ols during potent therapy are not well defined. OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence of and risk factors(More)
Per capita incomes and the quality of governance are strongly positively correlated across countries. We propose an empirical strategy that allows us to separate this correlation into: i) a strong positive causal effect running from better governance to higher per capita incomes, and ii) a weak and even negative causal effect running in the opposite(More)
Murine models indicate that interleukin-10 (IL-10) can suppress viral clearance, and interventional blockade of IL-10 activity has been proposed to enhance immunity in chronic viral infections. Increased IL-10 levels have been observed during HIV infection and IL-10 blockade has been shown to enhance T-cell function in some HIV-infected subjects. However,(More)