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Endocrine-disrupting organochlorines, such as the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), bind to and activate estrogen receptors (ERs), thereby eliciting estrogen-like effects. Although ERs function predominantly through activation of transcription via estrogen-responsive elements, both ERs, alpha and ss, can interact with various transcription(More)
Advanced prostate cancers preferentially metastasize to bone, suggesting that this tissue produces factors that provide a suitable microenvironment for prostate cancer cells. Recently, it has become clear that even in antiandrogen-resistant cancers, the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling axis is required for prostate cancer progression. Therefore, we(More)
Androgens, through their actions on the androgen receptor (AR), are required for the development of the prostate and contribute to the pathologic growth dysregulation observed in prostate cancers. Consequently, androgen ablation has become an essential component of the pharmacotherapy of prostate cancer. In this study, we explored the utility of targeting(More)
Phytochemicals bind to and regulate the human estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta), mimicking actions of the endogenous estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, and known antiestrogens such as ICI 182,780. Recently, however, some of these estrogenic phytochemicals have been shown to affect other signal transduction pathways, such as receptor tyrosine kinases and(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a critical component in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation decisions. In breast carcinoma cells, activation of the p38-MAPK member of this family occurs in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. The involvement of p38-MAPK in the activation of the transcription(More)
Cyclin D1b is a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 and is known to harbor divergent and highly oncogenic functions in human cancer. While cyclin D1b is induced during disease progression in many cancer types, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Herein, cell and human tumor xenograft models of prostate(More)
Organochlorine compounds have been demonstrated to have detrimental health effects in both wildlife and humans, an effect largely attributed to their ability to mimic the hormone estrogen. Our laboratory has studied cell signaling by environmental chemicals associated with the estrogen receptor (ER) and more recently via ER-independent mechanisms. Here, we(More)
Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is primarily an androgen-dependent disease, which is treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Tumors usually develop resistance (castration-resistant PCa [CRPC]), but remain androgen receptor (AR) dependent. Numerous mechanisms for AR-dependent resistance have been identified including expression of constitutively(More)
Growth factor activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway has been shown to activate the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and to mediate tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Here, we investigated the regulation of the transcriptional activity of the newer ER beta by PI3K-AKT signaling. Tissue arrays of breast cancer specimens showed a(More)
Androgen ablation therapy is widely used for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, the effectiveness of this intervention strategy is generally short-lived as the disease ultimately progresses to a hormone-refractory state. In recent years, it has become clear that even in antiandrogen-resistant cancers the androgen receptor (AR) signaling(More)