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A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3%(More)
From the standpoints of both basic research and biotechnology, there is considerable interest in reaching a clearer understanding of the diversity of biological mechanisms employed during lignocellulose degradation. Globally, termites are an extremely successful group of wood-degrading organisms and are therefore important both for their roles in carbon(More)
UNLABELLED A set of new algorithms and software tools for automatic protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting is presented. The software is automatic, fast and modular to suit different laboratory needs, and it can be operated either via a Java user interface or called from within scripts. The software modules do peak extraction, peak(More)
IMG/M is a data management and analysis system for microbial community genomes (metagenomes) hosted at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI). IMG/M consists of metagenome data integrated with isolate microbial genomes from the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system. IMG/M provides IMG's comparative data analysis tools extended to(More)
UNLABELLED Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and constitute intrinsic parts of almost every ecosystem. A culture-independent and powerful way to study microbial communities is metagenomics. In such studies, functional analysis is performed on fragmented genetic material from multiple species in the community. The recent advances in high-throughput(More)
MOTIVATION A typical metagenome dataset generated using a 454 pyrosequencing platform consists of short reads sampled from the collective genome of a microbial community. The amount of sequence in such datasets is usually insufficient for assembly, and traditional gene prediction cannot be applied to unassembled short reads. As a result, analysis of such(More)
Systems biology has matured considerably as a discipline over the last decade, yet some of the key challenges separating current research efforts in systems biology and clinically useful results are only now becoming apparent. As these gaps are better defined, the new discipline of systems medicine is emerging as a translational extension of systems(More)
MOTIVATION Analyses of genomic signatures are gaining attention as they allow studies of species-specific relationships without involving alignments of homologous sequences. A naïve Bayesian classifier was built to discriminate between different bacterial compositions of short oligomers, also known as DNA words. The classifier has proven successful in(More)
We have studied the relative contribution of inversions, transpositions, deletions, and nucleotide substitutions to the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The minimal number of rearrangement events required for converting the gene order structure of one genome into that of the other was estimated to 59 +/- 6 events, including 13%(More)
BACKGROUND The translational efficiency of an mRNA can be modulated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in certain genes. A uORF can attenuate translation of the main ORF by interfering with translational reinitiation at the main start codon. uORFs also occur by chance in the genome, in which case they do not have a regulatory role. Since the(More)