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Spatial separation of speech and noise in an anechoic space creates a release from masking that often improves speech intelligibility. However, the masking release is severely reduced in reverberant spaces. This study investigated whether the distinct and separate localization of speech and interference provides any perceptual advantage that, due to the(More)
Nine infants were tested, at the age of onset of reaching, seated on their parent's lap and reaching for a small plastic toy. Kinematic analysis revealed that infants largely used shoulder and torso rotation to move their hands to the toy. Many changes in hand direction were observed during reaching, with later direction changes correcting for earlier(More)
Echo threshold increases with exposure to redundant trains of stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a change in the ongoing train would affect listeners' perception of the echo, but only if it signified an unusual change in room acoustics. The stimulus train was composed of 4-ms narrow-band noise bursts, with the leading(More)
When two identical stimuli are presented from two loudspeakers with a brief delay between them, a single image is heard near the source of the leading sound. The delayed sound or echo appears to be suppressed whereas the preceding sound determines perceived location, hence the name, the precedence effect. This study investigated normal-hearing listeners'(More)
The effect of changing the frequency components of an echo relative to the sound source was examined in a two-choice discrimination task. Subjects sat in an anechoic chamber and discriminated the direction of the lag noise burst within a lead-lag pair presented over loudspeakers. The leading noise burst was broadband, and the lagging burst was either high-(More)
The current study investigated the influence of semantic cues on odor identification in preschool-aged children and adults. We tested the hypothesis that odor identification in a multiple-choice task is facilitated when choices belong to different semantic categories compared to when they belong to the same category. Participants were shown three color(More)
This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging puzzle(More)
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