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Important progress has been made regarding the characterization of the ABA signalling components using genetic and molecular approaches (Leung and Giraudat, 1998). However, we do not yet know the mechanism of ABA perception. Conflicting results concerning the site of ABA perception have been published. The prevailing view is that since ABA controls many(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in the control of stomatal aperture by regulating ion channel activities and water exchanges across the plasma membrane of guard cells. Changes in cytoplasmic calcium content and activation of anion and outward-rectifying K(+) channels are among the earliest cellular responses to ABA in guard cells. In Arabidopsis(More)
In Arabidopsis suspension cells a rapid plasma membrane depolarization is triggered by abscisic acid (ABA). Activation of anion channels was shown to be a component leading to this ABA-induced plasma membrane depolarization. Using experiments employing combined voltage clamping, continuous measurement of extracellular pH, we examined whether plasma membrane(More)
The abscissic acid (ABA) transduction cascade following the plasmalemma perception was analyzed in intact Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. In response to impermeant ABA, anion currents were activated and K(+) inward rectifying currents were inhibited. Anion current activation was required for the ABA specific expression of RAB18. By contrast, specific(More)
Nod factor [NodRm-IV(Ac,S)], isolated from the bacterium Rhizobium meliloti, induces a well-known depolarization in Medicago sativa (cv Sitel) root hairs. Analysis of this membrane response using the discontinuous single-electrode voltage-clamp technique (dSEVC) shows that anion channel, K+ channel and H+-ATPase pump currents are involved in young growing(More)
Figure 1: Understanding the uncertain vulnerability of a selected building to a multitude of flood scenarios. (Left) Vulnerability to floodwall overtopping events, displayed on a water gauge. (Middle) Vulnerability to floodwall breaches, shown along the protection wall. (Right) Adverse impact on the selected building, including cellar flooding. The(More)
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In computer graphics, stochastic sampling is frequently used to efficiently approximate complex functions and integrals. The error of approximation can be reduced by distributing samples according to an importance function, but cannot be eliminated completely. To avoid visible artifacts, sample distributions are sought to be random, but spatially uniform,(More)