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Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common fatal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons, leading to progressive paralysis with muscular atrophy. The gene for SMA has been mapped to chromosome 5q13, where large-scale deletions have been reported. We describe here the inverted duplication of a 500 kb element in normal(More)
Mycorrhizal symbioses--the union of roots and soil fungi--are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to(More)
A map of 191 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) was built across a 5-Mb segment from chromosome 13q34 that has been genetically linked to schizophrenia. DNA from 213 schizophrenic patients and 241 normal individuals from Canada were genotyped with this marker set. Two 1,400- and 65-kb regions contained markers associated with the disease. Two markers(More)
Much of the new growth literature stresses countly characteristics, such as education levels or political stability, as the dominant determinant of growth. However, growth rates are highly unstable over time, with a correlation across decades of .1 to .3, while country characteristics are stable, with cross-decade correlations of .6 to .9. Shocks,(More)
Ethylene is the major effector of ripening in many fleshy fruits. In apples (Malus x domestica) the addition of ethylene causes a climacteric burst of respiration, an increase in aroma, and softening of the flesh. We have generated a transgenic line of 'Royal Gala' apple that produces no detectable levels of ethylene using antisense ACC OXIDASE, resulting(More)
Countries that have experienced occasional …nancial crises have, on average, grown faster than countries with stable …nancial conditions. Because …nancial crises are realizations of down-side risk, we measure their incidence by the skewness of credit growth. Unlike variance, negative skewness isolates the impact of the large, infrequent and abrupt credit(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of inherited diseases whose genetic etiology has yet to be elucidated. The autosomal recessive forms (LGMD2) constitute a genetically heterogeneous group with LGMD2A mapping to chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1. The gene encoding the muscle-specific calcium-activated neutral protease 3 (CANP3) large subunit is(More)
Many bipolar affective disorder (BD) susceptibility loci have been identified but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the disease remain to be elucidated. In the locus 4p16, several candidate genes were identified but none of them was definitively shown to be associated with BD. In this region, the PPP2R2C gene encodes the Bgamma-regulatory subunit of(More)
Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not(More)