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The activation of Shaker K+ channels is steeply voltage dependent. To determine whether conserved charged amino acids in putative transmembrane segments S2, S3, and S4 contribute to the gating charge of the channel, the total gating charge movement per channel was measured in channels containing neutralization mutations. Of eight residues tested, four(More)
Ionic (Ii) and gating currents (Ig) from noninactivating Shaker H4 K+ channels were recorded with the cut-open oocyte voltage clamp and macropatch techniques. Steady state and kinetic properties were studied in the temperature range 2-22 degreesC. The time course of Ii elicited by large depolarizations consists of an initial delay followed by an exponential(More)
BACKGROUND Although we know much about the molecular makeup of the sinus node (SN) in small mammals, little is known about it in humans. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of ion channels in the human SN and to use the data to predict electrical activity. METHODS AND RESULTS Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in situ(More)
Gating currents provide a direct record of the spatial rearrangement of charges occurring within the protein of voltage-sensitive ion channels. If the elementary charges move as very brief discrete pulses of current, they will produce fluctuations in the macroscopic gating current. The variance of such fluctuations in gating currents was measured in Shaker(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid receptor agonists are involved in ischemic preconditioning and natural hibernation. The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin or morphine confers cardioprotection in large mammalian hearts. We assessed myocardial functional recovery and global energy metabolism after ischemic cold storage. (More)
We have previously shown in rabbit that the pacemaker of the heart (the sinus node) is widespread and matches the wide distribution of the leading pacemaker site within the right atrium. There is, however, uncertainty about the precise location of the pacemaker in human heart, and its spatial relationships with the surrounding right atrial muscle.(More)
One measure of the voltage dependence of ion channel conductance is the amount of gating charge that moves during activation and vice versa. The limiting slope method, introduced by Almers (Almers, W. 1978. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 82:96-190), exploits the relationship of charge movement and voltage sensitivity, yielding a lower limit to the range(More)
Excitation-evoked calcium influx across cellular membranes is strictly controlled by voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV), which possess four distinct voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) that direct the opening of a central pore. The energetic interactions between the VSDs and the pore are critical for tuning the channel's voltage dependence. The accessory α2δ-1(More)
A thermodynamic approach to studying allosterically regulated ion channels such as the large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent (BK) channel is presented, drawing from principles originally introduced to describe linkage phenomena in hemoglobin. In this paper, linkage between a principal channel component and secondary elements is derived from a(More)
Basic and clinical evidence suggests that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease fatal arrhythmias and infarct sizes. This study investigated if pericardial delivery of n-3 PUFAs would protect the myocardium from ischemic damages and arrhythmias. Acute myocardial infarctions were induced in 23 pigs with either 45 min balloon inflations(More)