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Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has(More)
BACKGROUND The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine capable of regulating diverse cellular processes. In this study we investigated the effect of autocrine TGF-beta signaling on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha-induced cell death. We abrogated the TGF-beta autocrine loop by overexpression of a truncated TGF-beta type II receptor in(More)
Large amounts of information are locked up in free text components of clinical reports. Surveillance systems that monitor adverse events following immunizations (AEFI) can utilize these components after concept extraction using natural language processing (NLP). Specifically, our method for the identification and filtering of negated concepts using the(More)
treatment or prevention of mucositis, earlier detection and identification of isolates, and revision of current anti-microbial drug protocols for empiric treatment of neutropenic fever. and the staff of the Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Program for their time and expertise and for providing data for patients, the transplant program, and microbiologic(More)
Surveillance for rotavirus-associated diarrhea after implementation of rotavirus vaccination can assess vaccine effectiveness and identify disease-associated genotypes. During active vaccine postlicensure surveillance in the United States, we found a novel rotavirus genotype, G14P[24], in a stool sample from a child who had diarrhea. Unusual rotavirus(More)
We compared rotavirus detection rates in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in healthy controls using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We calculated rotavirus vaccine effectiveness using different laboratory-based case definitions to determine which best identified the proportion of(More)
BACKGROUND We studied the transmission of rotavirus infection in households in peri-urban Ecuador in the vaccination era. METHODS Stool samples were collected from household contacts of child rotavirus cases, diarrhea controls and healthy controls following presentation of the index child to health facilities. Rotavirus infection status of contacts was(More)
inter vomiting disease " was the clinical moniker for viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE), including illnesses caused by norovirus and rotavirus, nearly 100 years ago (1). This nonspecific diagnosis represented a frequently observed illness, with the symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea that occurred particularly in the colder months. One hundred years later,(More)
To determine the effect of stress on nursing, and the roles of HPA activity and opioid peptides, nine sows had their piglets removed for 2 h and were treated as follows: (a) control; (b) nose-snare restraint for 20 min; (c) naloxone injections (i.v. 2 mg/kg); and (d) snare + naloxone. After the treatment, the piglets were returned, milk ejections were(More)