Daniel C. Olk

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The effects of soil aeration, N fertilizer, and crop residue management on crop performance, soil N supply, organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content were evaluated in two annual double-crop systems for a 2-year period (1994–1995). In the maize-rice (M-R) rotation, maize (Zea mays, L.) was grown in aerated soil in the dry season (DS) followed by rice(More)
Although efficient use of N remains a critical constraint to productivity in irrigated lowland rice, a comprehensive database does not exist for the efficiency of on-farm management of N and other nutrients. In 1994, IRRI initiated its Mega Project on Reversing Trends of Declining Productivity in Intensive Irrigated Rice Systems in selected rice production(More)
This review summarizes independent reports of yield decreases in several agricultural systems that are associated with repeated cropping under wet or submerged soil conditions. Crop and soil data from most of these agroecosystems have led researchers to attribute yield decreases to a reduction in crop uptake of N mineralized from soil organic matter (SOM).(More)
Previous research has shown that long-term intensive cropping of irrigated lowland rice has led to significant grain-yield declines in field trials. The yield decline was attributed to decreased availability of soil nitrogen, which is held mostly in the soil organic matter. By advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we have detected significant amounts of(More)
Soil organic matter (SOM) has been proposed as an index of N supply in paddy soils although field validations are few. We evaluated the relationship between the indigenous N supply (N i ) of the soil-floodwater system and soil organic carbon (SOC) or total N (N t ) in surface soil of long-term fertility experiments (LTFEs) at 11 sites, in 42 farmer's fiels(More)
To determine the effects of intensive cropping of tropical lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the associated long-term soil submergence on chemical properties of soil organic matter, we used solid-state 13C and 15N and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to analyze the labile mobile humic acid (MHA) and the more recalcitrant calcium(More)
Labile, 'high-quality', plant litters are hypothesized to promote soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization in mineral soil fractions that are physicochemically protected from rapid mineralization. However, the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is inconsistent. High-quality litters, characterized by high N concentrations, low C/N ratios, and low(More)
such effects, especially for chemically extracted SOM fractions. In this study, we explore the relationship beAlthough the chemical nature of soil organic matter (SOM) is tween the chemical nature of extracted HA fractions thought to affect the mineralization rate of N bound in SOM, little direct evidence exists for such effects. To test the hypothesis that(More)
Large-scale soil application of biochar may enhance soil fertility, increasing crop production for the growing human population, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. But reaching these beneficial outcomes requires an understanding of the relationships among biochar's structure, stability, and contribution to soil fertility. Using quantitative (13)C(More)
Allelopathy in rice (Oryza sativa, L.) effective against weeds has been found in about 3.5% of tested rice germplasm in both laboratory and field experimentation. However, the allelochemicals responsible for growth inhibition of rice-associated weeds have not yet been identified. In the literature, phenolic acids are often mentioned as putative(More)