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Although Akt is known as a survival kinase, inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway do not always induce substantial apoptosis. We show that silencing Akt1 alone, or any combination of Akt isoforms, can suppress the growth of tumors established from phosphatase and tensin homologue-null human cancer cells. Although these findings(More)
The kinase Akt plays a central role as a regulator of multiple growth factor input signals, thus making it an attractive anticancer drug target. A-443654 is an ATP-competitive Akt inhibitor. Unexpectedly, treatment of cells with A-443654 causes paradoxical hyperphosphorylation of Akt at its two regulatory sites (Thr308 and Ser473). We explored whether(More)
The ability to resolve single cells noninvasively in the living retina has important applications for the study of normal retina, diseased retina, and the efficacy of therapies for retinal disease. We describe a new instrument for high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the mammalian retina that combines the benefits of confocal detection, adaptive optics,(More)
PURPOSE The extent to which the fine structure of single ganglion cells, such as dendrites and axons, can be resolved in retinal images obtained from the living primate eye was investigated. METHODS Macaque retinal ganglion cells were labeled with retrograde transport of rhodamine dextran injected into the lateral geniculate nucleus. Fluorescence images(More)
PURPOSE Autofluorescence fundus imaging using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) allows for imaging of individual retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vivo. In this study, the potential of retinal damage was investigated by using radiant exposure levels that are 2 to 150 times those used for routine imaging. METHODS Macaque(More)
Apoptosis is a conserved cellular pathway that results in the activation of cysteine-aspartyl proteases, or caspases. To dissect the nonredundant roles of the executioner caspase-3, -6, and -7 in orchestrating apoptosis, we have developed an orthogonal protease to selectively activate each isoform in human cells. Our approach uses a split-tobacco etch virus(More)
Virtually all of the 560 human proteases are stored as inactive proenyzmes and are strictly regulated. We report the identification and characterization of the first small molecules that directly activate proenzymes, the apoptotic procaspases-3 and -6. It is surprising that these compounds induce autoproteolytic activation by stabilizing a conformation that(More)
Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography (UHR-AO-OCT) instrumentation allowing monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction was used for volumetric in vivo retinal imaging of various retinal structures including the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). Novel visualization methods that simplify AO-OCT data viewing are presented,(More)
BACKGROUND Although it has been suggested that alterations of nerve fiber layer vasculature may be involved in the etiology of eye diseases, including glaucoma, it has not been possible to examine this vasculature in-vivo. This report describes a novel imaging method, fluorescence adaptive optics (FAO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), that makes(More)
PURPOSE The ability to resolve single retinal cells in rodents in vivo has applications in rodent models of the visual system and retinal disease. The authors have characterized the performance of a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (fAOSLO) that provides cellular and subcellular imaging of rat retina in vivo. METHODS Enhanced(More)