Daniel C. Freed

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Recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans and of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus monkeys have shown that resolution of the acute viral infection and control of the subsequent persistent infection are mediated by the antiviral cellular immune response. We comparatively assessed several vaccine vector(More)
Cellular immune responses, particularly those associated with CD3(+) CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), play a primary role in controlling viral infection, including persistent infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Accordingly, recent HIV-1 vaccine research efforts have focused on establishing the optimal means of eliciting such(More)
With accumulating evidence indicating the importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in containing human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication in infected individuals, strategies are being pursued to elicit virus-specific CTLs with prototype HIV-1 vaccines. Here, we report the protective efficacy of vaccine-elicited immune responses against a(More)
The prophylactic efficacy of DNA and replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vaccine vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag was examined in rhesus macaques using an SIVmac239 challenge. Cohorts of either Mamu-A*01(+) or Mamu-A*01(-) macaques were immunized with a DNA prime-Ad5 boost regimen; for comparison, a third cohort(More)
Immunization against M2 peptide, also called M2e, from influenza A virus is an innovative vaccine approach for induction of cross-strain protective immunity. Two promising M2 vaccine compositions reported to date are M2 peptide chemically conjugated to carrier proteins or M2 peptide recombinantly expressed on the surface of virus like particles (VLPs) of(More)
M2 protein of influenza A virus has been implicated as a target for vaccines with broad cross-strain coverage. Studies in small animal models have shown that antibody responses induced by 23-mer M2 peptide vaccines can provide protection against influenza A virus challenge. To study antiviral mechanisms of Merck M2-OMPC conjugate vaccine, we generated and(More)
The use of cytokines has shown promise as an approach for amplifying vaccine-elicited immune responses, but the application of these immunomodulatory molecules in this setting has not been systematically explored. In this report we investigate the use of protein- and plasmid-based cytokines to augment immune responses elicited by an HIV-1 gp120 plasmid DNA(More)
It is generally thought that an effective vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infection should elicit both strong neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. We recently demonstrated that potent, boostable, long-lived HIV-1 envelope (Env)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses can be elicited in rhesus monkeys using plasmid-encoded HIV-1 env DNA as(More)
A synthetic gene consisting of the reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN) domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol was constructed using codons most frequently used in humans. The humanized pol gave dramatically improved levels of Rev-independent, in vitro protein production in mammalian cells and elicited much stronger cellular(More)
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), a bacterial signaling molecule, possesses protective immunostimulatory activity in bacterial challenge models. This study explored the potential of c-di-GMP as a vaccine adjuvant comparing it with LPS, CpG oligonucleotides, and a conventional aluminum salt based adjuvant. In this evaluation, c-di-GMP was a more potent(More)