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The myelin g-ratio, defined as the ratio between the inner and the outer diameter of the myelin sheath, is a fundamental property of white matter that can be computed from a simple formula relating the myelin volume fraction to the fiber volume fraction or the axon volume fraction. In this paper, a unique combination of magnetization transfer, diffusion(More)
Stem cells reside in a specialized, regulatory environment termed the niche that dictates how they generate, maintain and repair tissues. We have previously documented that transplanted haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations localize to subdomains of bone-marrow microvessels where the chemokine CXCL12 is particularly abundant. Using a(More)
We provide a detailed morphometric analysis of eight transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) obtained from the corpus callosum of one cynomolgus macaque. The raw TEM images are included in the article, along with the distributions of the axon caliber and the myelin g-ratio in each image. The distributions are analyzed to determine the relationship between(More)
Imaging living organisms with molecular selectivity typically requires the introduction of specific labels. Many applications in biology and medicine, however, would significantly benefit from a noninvasive imaging technique that circumvents such exogenous probes. In vivo microscopy based on vibrational spectroscopic contrast offers a unique approach for(More)
Stem cells reside in a specialized regulatory microenvironment or niche, where they receive appropriate support for maintaining self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. The niche may also protect stem cells from environmental insults including cytotoxic chemotherapy and perhaps pathogenic immunity. The testis, hair follicle and placenta are(More)
Myelin loss and axonal degeneration predominate in many neurological disorders; however, methods to visualize them simultaneously in live tissue are unavailable. We describe a new imaging strategy combining video rate reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy tuned to CH(2) vibration of myelin(More)
We describe a new method for imaging leukocytes in vivo by exciting the endogenous protein fluorescence in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region where tryptophan is the major fluorophore. Two-photon excitation near 590 nm allows noninvasive optical sectioning through the epidermal cell layers into the dermis of mouse skin, where leukocytes can be observed by(More)
The organization of cellular niches is known to have a key role in regulating normal stem cell differentiation and regeneration, but relatively little is known about the architecture of microenvironments that support malignant metastasis. Using dynamic in vivo confocal imaging, here we show that murine bone marrow contains unique anatomic regions defined by(More)
Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However,(More)
The mechanisms by which multiple myeloma (MM) cells migrate and home to the bone marrow are not well understood. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 on the migration and homing of MM cells. We demonstrated that CXCR4 is differentially expressed at high levels in the peripheral blood and is(More)