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The grand challenge of neuromorphic computation is to develop a flexible brain-inspired architecture capable of a wide array of real-time applications, while striving towards the ultra-low power consumption and compact size of biological neural systems. Toward this end, we fabricated a building block of a modular neuromorphic architecture, a neurosynaptic(More)
Marching along the DARPA SyNAPSE roadmap, IBM unveils a trilogy of innovations towards the TrueNorth cognitive computing system inspired by the brain's function and efficiency. Judiciously balancing the dual objectives of functional capability and implementation/operational cost, we develop a simple, digital, reconfigurable, versatile spiking neuron model(More)
PURPOSE To compare the safety and effectiveness of an undiluted direct injection of ferumoxides with those of a diluted slow infusion of ferumoxides during 30 minutes in patients with known liver lesions or in those suspected of having them. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred thirty-three patients at 16 institutions were randomized to receive either an(More)
This article describes procedures for presenting standardized measures of effect size when contrasts are used to ask focused questions of data. The simplest contrasts consist of comparisons of two samples (e.g., based on the independent t statistic). Useful effect-size indices in this situation are members of the g family (e.g., Hedges's g and Cohen's d)(More)
Neural activity of behaving animals, especially in the prefrontal cortex, is highly heterogeneous, with selective responses to diverse aspects of the executed task. We propose a general model of recurrent neural networks that perform complex rule-based tasks, and we show that the diversity of neuronal responses plays a fundamental role when the behavioral(More)
Theoretical studies have shown that memories last longer if the neural representations are sparse, that is, when each neuron is selective for a small fraction of the events creating the memories. Sparseness reduces both the interference between stored memories and the number of synaptic modifications which are necessary for memory storage. Paradoxically, in(More)
Complex tasks often require the memory of recent events, the knowledge about the context in which they occur, and the goals we intend to reach. All this information is stored in our mental states. Given a set of mental states, reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms predict the optimal policy that maximizes future reward. RL algorithms assign a value to each(More)
In this prospective study of 45 patients, we tested the hypothesis that markedly elevated levels of plasma von Willebrand antigen (vWf-Ag) a marker of endothelial cell injury, might predict the development of acute lung injury in patients with nonpulmonary sepsis syndrome. Acute lung injury was quantified on a four-point scoring system. At the time of entry(More)
The time course of biochemical changes related to cell loss and damage during exposure to 95% O2 [DNA and protein content of dishes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release] was studied in postconfluent endothelial cells isolated from pig aorta, cultured in standard medium and in medium supplemented with 2 X 10(-7) M selenomethionine (Se-Met). A fourfold(More)