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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be isolated from adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood and expanded exponentially ex vivo. In contrast, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) derived from vessel walls are widely considered to be differentiated, mature endothelial cells (ECs). However, similar to(More)
The developing central nervous system is extremely sensitive to ethanol, with well-defined temporal periods of vulnerability. Many brain regions are particularly susceptible to ethanol during the early neonatal period, corresponding to the human third trimester, which represents a dynamic period of growth and differentiation. For this study, neonatal rats(More)
The developing nervous system is extremely sensitive to ethanol, and exposure often produces a condition known as the fetal alcohol syndrome. Although mechanisms underlying developmental ethanol toxicity have long been sought, they remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the ability of the cell death repressor gene bcl-2 to protect against(More)
BACKGROUND Ethanol produces abnormalities in the developing nervous system, with certain regions being vulnerable during well-defined periods. Neonatal rodent cerebellum is particularly susceptible to ethanol during the early postnatal period [on postnatal days 4-5 (P4-5)], while this region is resistant to ethanol at a slightly later time (P7-9). We(More)
The detrimental effects of ethanol exposure during nervous system development have been well established. The cellular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity, however, have not been clearly defined. Recent studies suggest that neurotrophin signaling pathways may be involved in ethanol-mediated neuronal death. The present investigation, therefore, was designed(More)
Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, a recently available option for patients with refractory epilepsy, has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We report four patients with refractory epilepsy who experienced ventricular asystole intraoperatively during initial testing for implantation of the vagus nerve stimulator. Acute intraoperative vagus nerve(More)
BACKGROUND The global society is aging at an increasing rate, with a continually larger proportion of the population consisting of those over the age of 65. Age-related vascular changes have been demonstrated in ocular tissue, and the incidence and prevalence of diseases such as macular degeneration, glaucoma and vascular occlusive diseases increase(More)
The release of amyloidogenic amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) from amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) requires cleavage by beta- and gamma-secretases. In contrast, alpha-secretase cleaves APP within the Abeta sequence and precludes amyloidogenesis. Regulated and unregulated alpha-secretase activities have been reported, and the fraction of cellular(More)
In this paper we reported a patient with multisystem failure, whose EEG immediately preceding death demonstrated a unique combination of suppression-burst pattern, generalized epileptiform discharges, and alpha-theta pattern coma. Post-mortem examination showed ischemic-anoxic lesions involving cortical and sub-cortical gray matter. The lack of white matter(More)
Developmental ethanol exposure produces significant central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. The cellular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity, however, remain elusive. Recent data implicate altered neurotrophin signaling pathways in ethanol-mediated neuronal death. The present study investigated ethanol-induced alterations in neurotrophin receptor(More)