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Fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) denotes a method for measuring two-dimensional lateral mobility of fluorescent particles, for example, the motion of fluorescently labeled molecules in approximately 10 mum2 regions of a single cell surface. A small spot on the fluorescent surface is photobleached by a brief exposure to an intense focused laser(More)
Translational dynamics of chromatin in interphase nuclei of living Swiss 3T3 and HeLa cells was studied using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Chromatin was fluorescently labeled using dihydroethidium, a membrane-permeant derivative of ethidium bromide. After labeling, a laser was used to bleach small (approximately(More)
The orientation of an amphipathic, long acyl chain fluorescent carbocyanine dye [diI-C18-(3)] in a biological membrane is examined by steady-state fluorescence polarization microscopy on portions of single erythrocyte ghosts. The thermodynamically plausible orientation model most consistent with the experimental data is one in which the diI-C18-(3)(More)
Neuropeptides are slowly released from a limited pool of secretory vesicles. Despite decades of research, the composition of this pool has remained unknown. Endocrine cell studies support the hypothesis that a population of docked vesicles supports the first minutes of hormone release. However, it has been proposed that mobile cytoplasmic vesicles dominate(More)
We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study quantitatively the motion and distribution of secretory granules near the plasma membrane (PM) of living bovine chromaffin cells. Within the approximately 300-nm region measurably illuminated by the evanescent field resulting from total internal reflection, granules are preferentially(More)
Secretory granules labeled with Vamp-green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed distinct signatures upon exocytosis when viewed by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. In approximately 90% of fusion events, we observed a large increase in fluorescence intensity coupled with a transition from a small punctate appearance to a larger, spreading cloud(More)
By simple modification of the pattern of fluorescence excitation light in an epi-illumination inverted microscope, one can achieve conditions that produce total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) by evanescent wave excitation. Though traditionally requiring a collimated beam traversing through a special prism, TIRF also can be achieved by(More)
A technique for exciting fluorescence exclusively from regions of contact between cultured cells and the substrate is presented. The technique utilizes the evanescent wave of a totally internally reflecting laser beam to excite only those fluorescent molecules within one light wavelength or less of the substrate surface. Demonstrations of this technique are(More)