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This paper presents the <i>expected transmission count</i> metric (ETX), which finds high-throughput paths on multi-hop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss(More)
This paper analyzes the causes of packet loss in a 38-node urban multi-hop 802.11b network. The patterns and causes of loss are important in the design of routing and error-correction protocols, as well as in network planning.The paper makes the following observations. The distribution of inter-node loss rates is relatively uniform over the whole range of(More)
This paper evaluates the ability of a wireless mesh architecture to provide high performance Internet access while demanding little deployment planning or operational management. The architecture considered in this paper has unplanned node placement (rather than planned topology), omni-directional antennas (rather than directional links), and multi-hop(More)
Existing wireless ad hoc routing protocols typically find routes with the minimum hop-count. This paper presents experimental evidence from two wireless test-beds which shows that there are usually multiple minimum hop-count paths, many of which have poor throughput. As a result, minimum-hop-count routing often chooses routes that have significantly less(More)
The end-to-end availability of Internet services is between two and three orders of magnitude worse than other important engineered systems, including the US airline system, the 911 emergency response system, and the US public telephone system. This dissertation explores three systems designed to mask Internet failures, and, through a study of three years(More)
This paper uses measurements from two deployed wireless ad hoc networks to illustrate the effects of link loss rates on routing protocol performance. Measurements of these networks show that the radio links between the majority of nodes have substantial loss rates. These loss rates are high enough to decrease forwarding performance, but not high enough to(More)
Meraki is a cloud-based network management system which provides centralized configuration, monitoring, and network troubleshooting tools across hundreds of thousands of sites worldwide. As part of its architecture, the Meraki system has built a database of time-series measurements of wireless link, client, and application behavior for monitoring and(More)
Many physicists would agree that, had it not been for congestion control, the evaluation of web browsers might never have occurred. In fact, few hackers worldwide would disagree with the essential unification of voice-over-IP and public-private key pair. In order to solve this riddle, we confirm that SMPs can be made stochastic, cacheable, and interposable.
Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (BK) open probability is enhanced by depolarization, increasing Ca(2+) concentration, or both. These stimuli activate modular voltage and Ca(2+) sensors that are allosterically coupled to channel gating. Here, we report a point mutation of a phenylalanine (F380A) in the S6 transmembrane helix(More)
Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels are involved in a large variety of physiological processes. Regulatory β-subunits are one of the mechanisms responsible for creating BK channel diversity fundamental to the adequate function of many tissues. However, little is known about the structure of its voltage sensor domain. Here, we(More)