ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY: A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON LEARNING AND INNOVATION
Discusses the notion that the ability to exploit external knowledge is crucial to a firm's innovative capabilities. In addition, it is argued that the ability to evaluate and use outside knowledge is…
Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning
Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D
The authors assume that firms invest in R&D not only to generate innovations, but also to learn from competitors and extraindustry knowledge sources (e.g., university and government labs). This…
The myopia of learning
The imperfections of learning are not so great as to require abandoning attempts to improve the learning capabilities of organizations, but that those imperfections suggest a certain conservatism in expectations.
Adaptation on rugged landscapes
- Daniel A. Levinthal
- 1 July 1997
A simple model is developed to explore the interrelationship between processes of organizational level change and population selection forces. A critical property of the model is that the effect on…
Looking Forward and Looking Backward: Cognitive and Experiential Search
We used computer simulations to examine the role and interrelationship between search processes that are forward-looking, based on actors' cognitive map of action-outcome linkages, and those that are…
A model of adaptive organizational search
Demand Heterogeneity and Technology Evolution: Implications for Product and Process Innovation
A demand-based view of technology evolution that is focused on the interaction between technology development and the demand environment in which the technology is ultimately evaluated, and reveals that demand heterogeneity offers an alternative to supply-side explanations of the technology life cycle.
Modularity and Innovation in Complex Systems
A formal simulation model is developed that points to the trade-off between the destabilizing effects of overly refined modularization and the modest levels of search and a premature fixation on inferior designs that can result from excessive levels of integration.
Temporarily Divide to Conquer: Centralized, Decentralized, and Reintegrated Organizational Approaches to Exploration and Adaptation
It is found that if interactions among a firm’s activities are pervasive, neither the centralized nor the permanently decentralized organizational structure leads to high performance, and temporary decentralization—an organizational structure that has not found much attention in the literature—yields the highest long-term performance.