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Discusses the notion that the ability to exploit external knowledge is crucial to a firm's innovative capabilities. In addition, it is argued that the ability to evaluate and use outside knowledge isExpand
Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D
The authors assume that firms invest in R&D not only to generate innovations, but also to learn from competitors and extraindustry knowledge sources (e.g., university and government labs). ThisExpand
The myopia of learning
Organizational learning has many virtues, virtues which recent writings in strategic management have highlighted. Learning processes, however, are subject to some important limitations. As isExpand
Adaptation on rugged landscapes
A simple model is developed to explore the interrelationship between processes of organizational level change and population selection forces. A critical property of the model is that the effect onExpand
Looking Forward and Looking Backward: Cognitive and Experiential Search
We used computer simulations to examine the role and interrelationship between search processes that are forward-looking, based on actors' cognitive map of action-outcome linkages, and those that areExpand
A model of adaptive organizational search
A model of organizational change through adaptive search for new technologies is developed and explored. The model is in the tradition of behavioral models of organizational choice and learningExpand
Demand Heterogeneity and Technology Evolution: Implications for Product and Process Innovation
We present a demand-based view of technology evolution that is focused on the interaction between technology development and the demand environment in which the technology is ultimately evaluated. Expand
What Is Not A Real Option: Considering Boundaries for the Application of Real Options to Business Strategy
We argue that the greater the extent to which choice sets evolve as a consequence of firms' exploration activities, the less structured the firms' abandonment decisions become and, in turn, the lessExpand
Modularity and Innovation in Complex Systems
We develop a formal simulation model that allows us to carefully examine the dynamics of innovation and performance in complex systems. Expand