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Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) are components of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and tumor suppressors. Loss of SDH or FH induces pseudohypoxia, a major tumor-supporting event, which is the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) under normoxia. In SDH- or FH-deficient cells, HIF activation is due to HIF1alpha(More)
Cancer therapy has long relied on the rapid proliferation of tumour cells for effective treatment. However, the lack of specificity in this approach often leads to undesirable side effects. Many reports have described various 'metabolic transformation' events that enable cancer cells to survive, suggesting that metabolic pathways might be good targets.(More)
The identification of mutated metabolic enzymes in hereditary cancer syndromes has established a direct link between metabolic dysregulation and cancer. Mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), predispose affected individuals to leiomyomas, renal cysts, and cancers, though the respective pathogenic roles of mitochondrial and cytosolic(More)
Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells provides energy and multiple intermediates critical for cell growth. Hypoxia in tumors represents a hostile environment that can encourage these transformations. We report that glycogen metabolism is upregulated in tumors in vivo and in cancer cells in vitro in response to hypoxia. In vitro, hypoxia induced an early(More)
Cells exposed to low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia) alter their metabolism to survive. This response, although vital during development and high-altitude survival, is now known to be a major factor in the selection of cells with a transformed metabolic phenotype during tumorigenesis. It is thought that hypoxia-selected cells have increased invasive capacity(More)
Measuring intracellular metabolism has increasingly led to important insights in biomedical research. (13)C tracer analysis, although less information-rich than quantitative (13)C flux analysis that requires computational data integration, has been established as a time-efficient method to unravel relative pathway activities, qualitative changes in pathway(More)
In 2000, Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg published a review detailing the six hallmarks of cancer. These are six phenotypes that a tumour requires in order to become a fully fledged malignancy: persistent growth signals, evasion of apoptosis, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, unlimited replicative potential, angiogenesis and invasion and metastasis.(More)
Many solid tumors consist of large regions of poorly perfused cells, resulting in areas of low oxygen (hypoxia) throughout the cell mass. Cells subjected to hypoxia turn on a complex set of responses that alter their metabolism, rebalance their survival mechanisms, increase their invasive capacity, and stimulate angiogenesis. This allows them to at least(More)
The growing interest in cancer metabolism is best demonstrated by the rapid progress made in studying isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations since their discovery just over a year ago. In a recent study published in Nature, Dang et al. identified 2-hydroxyglutarate as a product of tumor-associated IDH mutants with potential oncogenic activities.