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Although previous research has supported the view that neo-traditional or new urbanist designs result in more walking activity, several questions remain: Do residents of these neighborhoods substitute walking for driving trips, or do they make more trips overall? What is the role of self-selection of residents in these developments? This paper aims to(More)
The built environment may be responsible for making nonmotorized transportation inconvenient, resulting in declines in physical activity. However, few studies have assessed both the perceived and objectively measured environment in association with physical activity outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between perceptions and(More)
PURPOSE This study examines the usefulness of complementing accelerometry-based physical activity measurement with spatial data from portable global positioning system (GPS) units to determine where physical activity occurs. METHODS First, using the geographic distribution of data points and Bland-Altman plots, we examined GPS units' validity and(More)
BACKGROUND Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however,(More)
BACKGROUND Measures to assess neighborhood environments are needed to better understand the salient features that may enhance outdoor physical activities, such as walking and bicycling for transport or leisure. The purpose of this study was to derive constructs to describe neighborhoods using both primary (neighborhood audit) and secondary (geographic(More)
We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between(More)
I n industrialized nations like the United States and Sweden, the vast majority of adults do not meet the physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes per week. 1 Inactive lifestyles put most adults at risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus, obesity, some cancers, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders. 2 Physical activity can be(More)
BACKGROUND Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking ("walkability") and access to transportation. PURPOSE To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multicity and diverse(More)
Pedestrian and bicycle planning has traditionally been viewed from an urban design perspective, rather than a rural or regional planning perspective. This study examined the prevalence and quality of pedestrian and bicycle plans in North Carolina according to geography, regional planning, and sociodemographics. Plan prevalence was lower, but plan quality(More)
BACKGROUND Urban containment policies attempt to manage the location, character, and timing of growth to support a variety of goals such as compact development, preservation of greenspace, and efficient use of infrastructure. Despite prior research evaluating the effects of urban containment policies on land use, housing, and transportation outcomes, the(More)