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BACKGROUND Measures to assess neighborhood environments are needed to better understand the salient features that may enhance outdoor physical activities, such as walking and bicycling for transport or leisure. The purpose of this study was to derive constructs to describe neighborhoods using both primary (neighborhood audit) and secondary (geographic(More)
The built environment may be responsible for making nonmotorized transportation inconvenient, resulting in declines in physical activity. However, few studies have assessed both the perceived and objectively measured environment in association with physical activity outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between perceptions and(More)
PURPOSE This study examines the usefulness of complementing accelerometry-based physical activity measurement with spatial data from portable global positioning system (GPS) units to determine where physical activity occurs. METHODS First, using the geographic distribution of data points and Bland-Altman plots, we examined GPS units' validity and(More)
I n industrialized nations like the United States and Sweden, the vast majority of adults do not meet the physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes per week. 1 Inactive lifestyles put most adults at risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus, obesity, some cancers, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders. 2 Physical activity can be(More)
Environmental effects on walking behavior have received attention in recent years because of the potential for policy interventions to increase population levels of walking. Most epidemiologic studies describe associations of walking behavior with environmental features. These analyses ignore the dynamic processes that shape walking behaviors. A spatial(More)
BACKGROUND Health researchers have increasingly adopted the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One aspect of this research that is often overlooked is the quality and detail of the road data and whether or not it is appropriate for the scale of analysis. Many(More)
Despite earlier attempts to evaluate the consequences of urban containment policy adoption, the transport implications of these policies have been overlooked. This paper examines the impact that containment policies have on population density and vehicle miles travelled per capita. An empirical analysis is conducted, relying on a fixed-effects model for(More)
Few studies have investigated the spatial clustering of multiple health-related resources. We constructed 0.5 mile kernel densities of resources for census areas in New York City, NY (n=819 block groups), Baltimore, MD (n=737), and Winston-Salem, NC (n=169). Three of the four resource densities (supermarkets/produce stores, retail areas, and recreational(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source(More)