Daniel A. Ritt

Learn More
The Raf-1 kinase is an important signaling molecule, functioning in the Ras pathway to transmit mitogenic, differentiative, and oncogenic signals to the downstream kinases MEK and ERK. Because of its integral role in cell signaling, Raf-1 activity must be precisely controlled. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation is required for Raf-1(More)
The B-Raf kinase is a Ras pathway effector activated by mutation in numerous human cancers and certain developmental disorders. Here we report that normal and oncogenic B-Raf proteins are subject to a regulatory cycle of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent feedback phosphorylation, followed by PP2A- and Pin1-dependent(More)
Scaffold proteins contribute to the spatiotemporal control of MAPK signaling and KSR1 is an ERK cascade scaffold that localizes to the plasma membrane in response to growth factor treatment. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of KSR1 function, we examined the interaction of KSR1 with each of the ERK cascade components, Raf, MEK, and ERK. Here, we(More)
Protein scaffolds have emerged as important regulators of MAPK cascades, facilitating kinase activation and providing crucial spatio/temporal control to their signaling outputs. Using a proteomics approach to compare the binding partners of the two mammalian KSR scaffolds, we find that both KSR1 and KSR2 interact with the kinase components of the ERK(More)
Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a molecular scaffold that interacts with the core kinase components of the ERK cascade, Raf, MEK, and ERK and provides spatial and temporal regulation of Ras-dependent ERK cascade signaling. In this report, we identify the heterotetrameric protein kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), as a new KSR1-binding partner. Moreover, we(More)
Raf kinases are essential for normal Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway signaling, and activating mutations in components of this pathway are associated with a variety of human cancers, as well as the related developmental disorders Noonan, LEOPARD, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Although the Raf kinases are known to dimerize during normal and disease-associated(More)
RAF kinase inhibitors can induce ERK cascade signaling by promoting dimerization of RAF family members in the presence of oncogenic or normally activated RAS. This interaction is mediated by a dimer interface region in the RAF kinase domain that is conserved in members of the ERK cascade scaffold family, kinase suppressor of RAS (KSR). In this study, we(More)
Maintenance of genomic integrity is an essential cellular function. We previously reported that the transcription factor and tumor suppressor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ, CEBPD; also known as "NFIL-6β") promotes genomic stability. However, the molecular mechanism was not known. Here, we show that C/EBPδ is a DNA damage-induced gene, which(More)
The protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a pleiotropic and constitutively active kinase that plays crucial roles in cellular proliferation and survival. Overexpression of CK2, particularly the α catalytic subunit (CK2α, CSNK2A1), has been implicated in a wide variety of cancers and is associated with poorer survival and resistance to both conventional(More)
Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a conserved component of the Ras pathway that functions as a molecular scaffold to enhance signaling between the core kinase components of the ERK cascade--Raf, MEK, and ERK. KSR interacts constitutively with MEK and translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane on Ras activation. At the membrane, KSR coordinates the(More)