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Cyclospora cayetanensis causes diarrheal disease worldwide without a confirmed mode of transmission. Wastewater was examined for the presence of this organism. Oocysts were detected microscopically, and their identity was confirmed by molecular techniques. These findings verify that current techniques can isolate Cyclospora oocysts and suggest that fecally(More)
The nucleotide sequence of a 7-kilobase segment of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome containing the entire coding regions for the enzymes catalyzing the first three steps of diaminopimelate synthesis as well as dipicolinate synthase has been determined. This group of functionally related genes, termed the dap operon, were arranged in the order orfY, orfX,(More)
The filamentous fungi have dynamic and variable hyphal structures within which cytoplasm can be moved, synthesized, and degraded, in response to changes in environmental conditions, resource availability, and resource distribution. Their study has gone through several phases. In the first phase, direct observation was emphasized without undue concern for(More)
The relationship between fungal activity and staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was investigated by growing Penicillium citrinum and Rhizoctonia solani in submerged batch cultures at different initial glucose concentrations and aeration rates. A modified FDA staining method, similar to the Jones and Mollison technique (P. Jones and J. Mollison, J.(More)
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) was induced in Lewis rats and B10.A mice by immunization with S-antigen (S-Ag) to study the potential roles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the beta1 and beta2 isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2) during the progression of the disease. VEGF has been implicated as an(More)
Proteins and RNA are unique among known polymers in their ability to adopt compact and well-defined folding patterns. These two biopolymers can perform complex chemical operations such as catalysis and highly selective recognition, and these functions are linked to folding in that the creation of an active site requires proper juxtaposition of reactive(More)
A radiotracer glucose mineralization assay was used with streptomycin and actidione to monitor the relative seasonal contributions of bacteria and fungi to mineralization processes in soils derived from the rhizosphere-rhizoplane zone of plants from a shortgrass prairie ecosystem. Bacteria played a major role in glucose mineralization in both the(More)
Experimental herpesvirus retinopathy presents a unique model of a transient inflammatory response in the virus-injected eye and subsequent acute retinal necrosis and chronic inflammation in the contralateral eye. For 6 days after infection, VEGF, TGFbeta1, and TGFbeta2 were associated only with inflammatory cells in the injected eye. By 6 days (after viral(More)
A gram-negative polar flagellated rod, isolated from a Colorado mountain stream and considered to be an Aeromonas sp., a mixed aquatic microbial population, and a culture of Escherichia coli were starved to determine their responses to the short-term presence of nutrients and mild warming stress (49.5 C for 2 min) in relation to starvation time. At the(More)
Heterotrophic microorganisms in water samples are susceptible to the transient stress of warmed agar used in the standard methods pour plate procedure, causing significantly decreased recoveries in comparison with a spread plate technique. Microbial starvation can increase susceptibility to a transient warming stress. The standard plate count procedure, as(More)