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Retinogenesis involves expansion of pluripotent progenitors, specification of postmitotic precursors, and terminal differentiation. Rb or Rb/p107 loss causes retinoblastoma in humans or mice, respectively. One model suggests that Rb- or Rb/p107-deficient retinal precursors have infinite proliferative capacity but are death-prone and must acquire an(More)
The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) form a large family of structurally related, multifunctional proteins that regulate various biological responses. They mediate cellular functions by binding to transmembrane FGF receptors, which are protein tyrosine kinases. FGF receptors are activated by oligomerization, and both this activation and FGF-stimulated(More)
It has long been known that loss of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) perturbs neural differentiation, but the underlying mechanism has never been solved. Rb absence impairs cell cycle exit and triggers death of some neurons, so differentiation defects may well be indirect. Indeed, we show that abnormalities in both differentiation and light-evoked(More)
The activating E2f transcription factors (E2f1, E2f2 and E2f3) induce transcription and are widely viewed as essential positive cell cycle regulators. Indeed, they drive cells out of quiescence, and the 'cancer cell cycle' in Rb1 null cells is E2f-dependent. Absence of activating E2fs in flies or mammalian fibroblasts causes cell cycle arrest, but this(More)
In the established model of mammalian cell cycle control, the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) functions to restrict cells from entering S phase by binding and sequestering E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2 and E2f3), which are invariably portrayed as the ultimate effectors of a transcriptional program that commit cells to enter and progress through S phase. Using a(More)
In the Chx10-null ocular retardation (or(J)) mouse, retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation is impaired, and bipolar neurons, a late born cell type, fail to differentiate. It is unclear whether Chx10 is required to maintain proliferation throughout retinogenesis or whether the bipolar cell defect is an indirect effect of growth arrest. We show that(More)
The Rb gene was isolated almost 20 years ago, but fundamental questions regarding its role in retinal development and retinoblastoma remain. What is the normal function of RB protein in retinogenesis? What is the cell-of-origin of retinoblastoma? Why do retinoblastoma tumors have recurrent genetic lesions other than Rb inactivation? Why is retinoblastoma(More)
To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were(More)