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Retinogenesis involves expansion of pluripotent progenitors, specification of postmitotic precursors, and terminal differentiation. Rb or Rb/p107 loss causes retinoblastoma in humans or mice, respectively. One model suggests that Rb- or Rb/p107-deficient retinal precursors have infinite proliferative capacity but are death-prone and must acquire an(More)
In the Chx10-null ocular retardation (or(J)) mouse, retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation is impaired, and bipolar neurons, a late born cell type, fail to differentiate. It is unclear whether Chx10 is required to maintain proliferation throughout retinogenesis or whether the bipolar cell defect is an indirect effect of growth arrest. We show that(More)
The activating E2f transcription factors (E2f1, E2f2 and E2f3) induce transcription and are widely viewed as essential positive cell cycle regulators. Indeed, they drive cells out of quiescence, and the 'cancer cell cycle' in Rb1 null cells is E2f-dependent. Absence of activating E2fs in flies or mammalian fibroblasts causes cell cycle arrest, but this(More)
In the established model of mammalian cell cycle control, the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) functions to restrict cells from entering S phase by binding and sequestering E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2 and E2f3), which are invariably portrayed as the ultimate effectors of a transcriptional program that commit cells to enter and progress through S phase. Using a(More)
It has long been known that loss of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) perturbs neural differentiation, but the underlying mechanism has never been solved. Rb absence impairs cell cycle exit and triggers death of some neurons, so differentiation defects may well be indirect. Indeed, we show that abnormalities in both differentiation and light-evoked(More)
The epigenetic regulator Bmi1 controls proliferation in many organs. Reexpression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is a hallmark of neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we address the potential role of Bmi1 as a key regulator of cell cycle proteins during neuronal apoptosis. We show that several cell cycle(More)
Retinoblastoma is initiated by loss of both RB1 alleles. Previous studies have shown that retinoblastoma tumors also show further genomic gains and losses. We now define a 2.62 Mbp minimal region of genomic loss of chromosome 16q22, which is likely to contain tumor suppressor gene(s), in 76 retinoblastoma tumors, using loss of heterozygosity (30 of 76(More)
The cell cycle regulatory retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a key regulator of neural precursor proliferation; however, its role has been expanded to include a novel cell-autonomous role in mediating neuronal migration. We sought to determine the Rb-interacting factors that mediate both the cell cycle and migration defects. E2F1 and E2F3 are likely(More)
The Rb gene was isolated almost 20 years ago, but fundamental questions regarding its role in retinal development and retinoblastoma remain. What is the normal function of RB protein in retinogenesis? What is the cell-of-origin of retinoblastoma? Why do retinoblastoma tumors have recurrent genetic lesions other than Rb inactivation? Why is retinoblastoma(More)
All retinoblastomas (RBs) show genomic changes in addition to loss of both RB1 alleles. Quantitative-multiplex PCR analysis identified in 41 of 70 (59%) RBs a 0.6-Mb minimal region of chromosome 6p22 gain from which we cloned the human kinesin gene, RBKIN/KIF13A, by rapid amplification of retinal cDNA. RBKIN is expressed ubiquitously in adult tissues, at(More)