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BACKGROUND HIV-1 infected macrophages play an important role in rendering resting T cells permissive for infection, in spreading HIV-1 to T cells, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. During highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART), macrophages keep producing virus because tissue penetration of antiretrovirals is suboptimal and the efficacy of(More)
Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in HIV-1 infected individuals, identifying common genetic influences on viral control and disease course. Similarly, common genetic correlates of acquisition of HIV-1 after exposure have been interrogated using GWAS, although in generally small samples. Under the auspices of the(More)
BACKGROUND The compilation of previous genomewide association studies of AIDS shows a major polymorphism in the HCP5 gene associated with both control of the viral load and long-term nonprogression (LTNP) to AIDS. METHODS To look for genetic variants that affect LTNP without necessary control of the viral load, we reanalyzed the genomewide data of the(More)
The antiviral factor tripartite interaction motif 5alpha (Trim5alpha) restricts a broad range of retroviruses in a species-specific manner. Although human Trim5alpha is unable to block HIV-1 infection in human cells, a modest inhibition of HIV-1 replication has been reported. Recently two polymorphisms in the Trim5 gene (H43Y and R136Q) were shown to affect(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies may protect against HIV-1 acquisition. In natural infection, only 10-30% of patients have cross-reactive neutralizing humoral immunity which may relate to viral and or host factors. To explore the role of host genetic markers in the formation of cross-reactive neutralizing activity (CrNA) in HIV-1 infected individuals, we(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, a genome-wide association analysis revealed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene regions of HLA-C and HCP5 to be associated with viral load at set point and SNPs in the RNF39/ZNRD1 gene region to be associated with HIV-1 disease course. METHODS We studied whether the association of these SNPs with viral load at set point(More)
BACKGROUND Host genetic variation influences human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression to AIDS. Here we used clinically well-characterized subjects from 5 pretreatment HIV/AIDS cohorts for a genome-wide association study to identify gene associations with rate of AIDS progression. METHODS European American HIV seroconverters (n = 755)(More)
BACKGROUND To date, only mutations in CCR5 have been shown to confer resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and these explain only a small fraction of the observed variability in HIV susceptibility. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis between 2 independent European genomewide association studies, each comparing HIV-1(More)
Susceptibility to HIV-1 and the clinical course after infection show a substantial heterogeneity between individuals. Part of this variability can be attributed to host genetic variation. Initial candidate gene studies have revealed interesting host factors that influence HIV infection, replication and pathogenesis. Recently, genome-wide association studies(More)
BACKGROUND AIDS develops typically after 7-11 years of untreated HIV-1 infection, with extremes of very rapid disease progression (<2 years) and long-term non-progression (>15 years). To reveal additional host genetic factors that may impact on the clinical course of HIV-1 infection, we designed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 404 participants of(More)