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With 29 individual antiretroviral drugs available from six classes that are approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a combination of different phenotypic and genotypic tests is currently needed to monitor HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we developed a novel HIV-1 genotypic assay based on deep sequencing (DeepGen HIV) to simultaneously assess(More)
HIV-1 coreceptor tropism assays are required to rule out the presence of CXCR4-tropic (non-R5) viruses prior treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Phenotypic (e.g., Trofile™, Monogram Biosciences) and genotypic (e.g., population sequencing linked to bioinformatic algorithms) assays are the most widely used. Although several next-generation sequencing (NGS)(More)
An oxidized derivative of linoleic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), is dehydrogenated by an NAD+ dependent dehydrogenase present in rat colon mucosa. The product of the reaction is the 2,4-dienone, 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid. Enzyme activity was determined by HPLC analysis of incubation mixtures as well as by measuring the increase in(More)
Twenty-six antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), targeting five different steps in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), have been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Accordingly, HIV-1 phenotypic assays based on common cloning technology currently employ three, or possibly four, different recombinant viruses. Here, we(More)
CCR5 antagonists are a powerful new class of antiretroviral drugs that require a companion assay to evaluate the presence of CXCR4-tropic (non-R5) viruses prior to use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. In this study, we have developed, characterized, verified, and prevalidated a novel phenotypic test to determine HIV-1 coreceptor(More)
Most studies describing phenotypic resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors have analyzed viruses carrying only patient-derived HIV-1 integrase genes (INT-recombinant viruses). However, to date, many of the patients on INSTI-based treatment regimes, such as raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG), and dolutegravir (DTG) are infected with(More)
The role of HIV-1 minority variants on transmission, pathogenesis, and virologic failure to antiretroviral regimens has been explored; however, most studies of low-level HIV-1 drug-resistant variants have focused in single target regions. Here we used a novel HIV-1 genotypic assay based on deep sequencing, DEEPGEN (Gibson et al 2014 Antimicrob Agents(More)
BACKGROUND A lower virulence of HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) is suggested to be related to the global dominance of HIV-1C. In this observational study, combining in vivo (clinical monitoring) and in vitro (genotypic, biochemical, and phenotypic assays), we explored whether HIV-1C from East Africa (HIV-1CEA ) is more pathogenic due to the evolution of a(More)
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