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Approximately 1 in every 5 children who receives 1 dose of varicella vaccine may develop varicella disease, also known as breakthrough disease, if exposed to varicella-zoster virus. Currently, in communities with high vaccination coverage, varicella cases mostly occur in vaccinated individuals. We report on the first population-based description of the(More)
We report detailed population-based data on varicella among adults. In 2 US varicella active surveillance sites with high vaccine coverage among young children, the incidence of varicella among adults declined 74% during 1995-2005. A low proportion (3%) of adults with varicella had been vaccinated, with no improvement over the decade of program(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed the validity of reported varicella history as a marker for varicella zoster virus immunity among unvaccinated persons 1 to 29 years of age, and we examined varicella disease characteristics associated with varicella zoster virus immunity among those reporting positive histories. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study at 7(More)
Significant reductions in varicella incidence were reported from 1995 to 2000 in the varicella active surveillance sites of Antelope Valley (AV), California, and West Philadelphia (WP), Pennsylvania. We examined incidence rates, median age, and vaccination status of case patients for 1995-2005. Coverage data were from the National Immunization Survey. By(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported history for varicella disease relative to serological evidence of varicella immunity in pregnant women attending antenatal care at clinics located in two diverse geographical locations in the U.S. (Antelope Valley, California, and Philadelphia) with high varicella vaccination(More)
OBJECTIVE One-dose varicella vaccination for children was introduced in the United States in 1995. In 2006, a second dose was recommended to further decrease varicella disease and outbreaks. We describe the impact of the 2-dose vaccination program on varicella incidence, severity, and outbreaks in 2 varicella active surveillance areas. METHODS We examined(More)
BACKGROUND In 2006, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health conducted an investigation of a varicella outbreak at an elementary school in which second-dose vaccination for outbreak control (VOC) was implemented. We evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS Self-administered questionnaires collected varicella disease and vaccination(More)
BACKGROUND A varicella diagnosis or verification of disease history by any healthcare provider is currently accepted for determining evidence of immunity by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). OBJECTIVE To examine the accuracy of medical record (MR) documented varicella history as a measure of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity(More)
As a result of single-dose varicella vaccination, daycare outbreaks have become rare. We investigated a daycare outbreak resulting from a misdiagnosed varicella case in an unvaccinated attendee. Of 25 attendees aged 12-32 months without evidence of immunity, 7 (28%) were unvaccinated due to religious/philosophical opposition or recent 1st birthday.(More)
OBJECTIVE The Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) conducts active surveillance for varicella in West Philadelphia. For its approximately 300 active surveillance sites, PDPH mandates biweekly reports of varicella (including zero cases) and performs intensive case investigations. Elsewhere in Philadelphia, surveillance sites passively report(More)