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The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent and of therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Understanding pluripotency at the molecular level should illuminate fundamental properties of stem cells and the process of cellular reprogramming. Through cell fusion the embryonic cell phenotype can be imposed on somatic cells, a process promoted by the(More)
Molecular control of the pluripotent state is thought to reside in a core circuitry of master transcription factors including the homeodomain-containing protein NANOG, which has an essential role in establishing ground state pluripotency during somatic cell reprogramming. Whereas the genomic occupancy of NANOG has been extensively investigated,(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer insight into early developmental fate decisions, and their controlled differentiation may yield vast regenerative potential. The molecular determinants supporting ES cell self-renewal are incompletely understood. The homeodomain proteins Nanog and Oct4 are essential for mouse ES cell self-renewal. Using a high-throughput(More)
Pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells is maintained by transcription factors that form a highly interconnected protein interaction network surrounding the homeobox protein Nanog. Enforced expression of Nanog in mouse ES (mES) cells promotes self-renewal and alleviates their requirement for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Understanding molecular(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of continuous self-renewal and pluripotential differentiation. A "core" set of transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, maintains the ES cell state, whereas various combinations of factors, invariably including Oct4 and Sox2, reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency. We have sought to define the transcriptional(More)
Although sickle cell anemia was the first hereditary disease to be understood at the molecular level, there is still no adequate long-term treatment. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only available cure, but this procedure is limited to a minority of patients with an available, histocompatible donor. Autologous transplantation of bone marrow(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are distinguished by their ability to undergo unlimited self-renewal although retaining pluripotency, the capacity to specify cells of all germ layers. Alternative splicing contributes to these biological processes by vastly increasing the protein coding repertoire, enabling genes to code for novel variants that may confer(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are defined by their simultaneous capacity for limitless self-renewal and the ability to specify cells borne of all germ layers. The regulation of ESC pluripotency is governed by a set of core transcription factors that regulate transcription by interfacing with nuclear proteins that include the RNA polymerase II core(More)
Activation of prodrugs by Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) provides a method for selectively killing tumor cells expressing a transfected PNP gene. This gene therapy approach requires matching a prodrug and a known enzymatic activity present only in tumor cells. The specificity of the method relies on avoiding prodrug cleavage by(More)