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Symptoms of depression have been associated with increased smoking prevalence and failure to quit smoking in several cross-sectional and population-based studies. Few studies, however, have prospectively examined the ability of current symptoms of depression to predict failure to quit smoking in treatment-motivated smokers. Pretreatment depressed mood was(More)
Motivational theories of drug use have assigned negative affect a central role in determining drug urges and drug relapse. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social stress on smoking urges in a controlled laboratory setting, and the relation of these responses to short-term (3-month) smoking cessation outcomes. Prior to a clinic-based(More)
Bupropion hydrochloride is effective in promoting long-term abstinence from smoking and may reduce risk for relapse through attenuation of withdrawal symptoms and craving. Bupropion is a weak dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and individual genetic variation in the dopamine D2 receptor has been associated with nicotine dependence in case-control studies. Thirty(More)
History of depression in smokers has been associated with an inability to quit smoking and with an increased likelihood of smoking relapse. This study prospectively tracked nicotine withdrawal symptoms, symptoms of depression, and ability to quit smoking between smokers with and without a probable history of major depression who were trying to quit smoking(More)
The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of chewing gum to reduce nicotine withdrawal, craving, and salivary cortisol concentrations during temporary nicotine deprivation. A total of 20 male smokers were studied under conditions when gum was and was not accessible during a 4-hour deprivation period. All subjects smoked an initial cigarette(More)
The current study examined the anxiolytic effects of cigarette smoking and chewing gum on urge to smoke, withdrawal, and anxiety in response to a public speaking task in 45 undergraduate smokers. Participants were asked to smoke, chew gum, or do nothing in response to the stressor. Participants completed measures of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms, and urge to(More)
In a previous study, Wrigley's chewing gum was shown to reduce cravings to smoke and nicotine withdrawal when smokers were not allowed access to cigarettes. The present study expanded these findings by examining smoking behavior of 20 dependent cigarette smokers who were allowed free access to cigarettes throughout the study session but were encouraged and(More)
When smokers are in situations where smoking is prohibited, chewing gum is believed to reduce cravings to smoke. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this widely held assumption. The present study assessed craving for a cigarette and nicotine withdrawal in 20 dependent cigarette smokers under one of two conditions. All subjects smoked an(More)
The diagnosis of cancer is often associated with a host of negative emotional responses, including depressed mood. Social support and quality of life were used to predict depression in a sample of older male cancer patients. Depression was found to be a common, but not universal, reaction to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Almost 40% of subjects(More)
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