Learn More
Global warming is predicted to induce desiccation in many world regions through increases in evaporative demand. Rising CO(2) may counter that trend by improving plant water-use efficiency. However, it is not clear how important this CO(2)-enhanced water use efficiency might be in offsetting warming-induced desiccation because higher CO(2) also leads to(More)
Introduced species escape many pathogens and other enemies, raising three questions. How quickly do introduced hosts accumulate pathogen species? What factors control pathogen species richness? Are these factors the same in the hosts' native and introduced ranges? We analysed fungal and viral pathogen species richness on 124 plant species in both their(More)
A fundamental assumption in invasion biology is that most invasive species exhibit enhanced performance in their introduced range relative to their home ranges. This idea has given rise to numerous hypotheses explaining "invasion success" by virtue of altered ecological and evolutionary pressures. There are surprisingly few data, however, testing the(More)
SUMMARY *Simulation models indicate that the nitrogen (N) cycle plays a key role in how other ecosystem processes such as plant productivity and carbon (C) sequestration respond to elevated CO(2) and warming. However, combined effects of elevated CO(2) and warming on N cycling have rarely been tested in the field. *Here, we studied N cycling under ambient(More)
O ne need only peruse a nursery catalog or visit a local gardening center to realize the enormous array of plant choices available to the everyday American gardener. Unfortunately, this wealth of consumer choices comes at a steep cost. Non-native plants introduced through the horticulture trade often become invasive (Mack and Lonsdale 2001; Reichard and(More)
Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and(More)
Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light,(More)
E cosystems are experiencing not only gradual shifts in mean climate conditions but also dramatic changes in climate variability and prevalence of extreme climatic events (ECEs). ECEs such as droughts, floods, severe storms, and heat waves are changing in frequency, magnitude , timing, and duration, depending on the region and the specific climate event(More)
Why do some exotic plant species become invasive? Two common hypotheses, increased resource availability and enemy release, may more effectively explain invasion if they favor the same species, and therefore act in concert. This would be expected if plant species adapted to high levels of available resources in their native range are particularly(More)
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential nutrients for primary producers and decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Although climate change affects terrestrial N cycling with important feedbacks to plant productivity and carbon sequestration, the impacts of climate change on the relative availability of N with respect to P remain highly uncertain. In a(More)