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Global warming is predicted to induce desiccation in many world regions through increases in evaporative demand. Rising CO(2) may counter that trend by improving plant water-use efficiency. However, it is not clear how important this CO(2)-enhanced water use efficiency might be in offsetting warming-induced desiccation because higher CO(2) also leads to(More)
Introduced species escape many pathogens and other enemies, raising three questions. How quickly do introduced hosts accumulate pathogen species? What factors control pathogen species richness? Are these factors the same in the hosts' native and introduced ranges? We analysed fungal and viral pathogen species richness on 124 plant species in both their(More)
Understanding why some exotic species become invasive is essential to controlling their populations. This review discusses the possibility that two mechanisms of invasion, release from natural enemies and increased resource availability, may interact. When plants invade new continents, they leave many herbivores and pathogens behind. Species most regulated(More)
E cosystems are experiencing not only gradual shifts in mean climate conditions but also dramatic changes in climate variability and prevalence of extreme climatic events (ECEs). ECEs such as droughts, floods, severe storms, and heat waves are changing in frequency, magnitude , timing, and duration, depending on the region and the specific climate event(More)
A fundamental assumption in invasion biology is that most invasive species exhibit enhanced performance in their introduced range relative to their home ranges. This idea has given rise to numerous hypotheses explaining "invasion success" by virtue of altered ecological and evolutionary pressures. There are surprisingly few data, however, testing the(More)
Long-term responses of terrestrial ecosystems to the combined effects of warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) will likely be regulated by N availability. The stock of soil N determines availability for organisms, but also influences loss to the atmosphere or groundwater. eCO2 and warming can elicit changes in soil N via direct effects on microbial and plant(More)
The relationship between plant invasions and global change is complex. Whereas some components of global change, such as rising CO2, usually promote invasion, other components, such as changing temperature and precipitation, can help or hinder plant invasion. Additionally, experimental studies and models suggest that invasive plants often respond(More)
Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light,(More)
Plant growth can be limited by resource acquisition and defence against consumers, leading to contrasting trade-off possibilities. The competition-defence hypothesis posits a trade-off between competitive ability and defence against enemies (e.g. herbivores and pathogens). The growth-defence hypothesis suggests that strong competitors for nutrients are also(More)