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This study examined the time course of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and correlated this with brain edema formation after a lateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) brain injury in rats. Quantitative measurement of Evans blue (EB) extravasation using fluorescence was employed at 2, 4, 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days after injury. Brain edema was(More)
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's) reflect the integrity of the central neuronal pathway, and as such may be used to assess function that remains during a variety of cerebral insults. To evaluate the natural history and utility of SEP's during experimental cerebral ischemia and infarction, SEP's were measured in 17 adult cats at 24 hours and 1 hour(More)
We have previously reported that ischemia reperfusion injury results from free radical generation following transient global ischemia, and that this radical induced damage is evident in the synaptosomal membrane of the gerbil. [Hall et al, (1995) Neuroscience 64: 81-89]. In the present study we have extended these observations to transient focal ischemia in(More)
Polyamines and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are both thought to play an important role in secondary neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. Ifenprodil, known as a noncompetitive inhibitor of polyamine sites at the NMDA receptor, was studied after transient focal cerebral ischemia occurred. Spontaneously hypertensive male rats, each weighing(More)
Hyperglycemia increases cerebral damage after transient cerebral ischemia. This study used in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the relationship of intracellular tissue acidosis and delayed recovery of brain high-energy phosphates to increased damage during the reperfusion period. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to transient(More)
Using the bilateral carotid artery occlusion model of cerebral ischemia in the gerbil, we studied the effect of moderate hypothermia (30 to 31 degrees C) on the postischemic production of prostanoids (cyclooxygenase pathway) and leukotrienes (lipoxygenase pathway) and accompanying changes in cerebral edema formation. Hypothermia capable of slowing central(More)
Transient global cerebral ischemia has been shown to induce marked changes in the polyamine pathway with a significant increase in putrescine, the product of the ornithine decarboxylase reaction. This study examined the relationship between tissue and extracellular polyamines and regional cerebral blood flow and brain edema. Six hours of focal ischemia in(More)
This study examined the effect of AA-861, a specific 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, on brain levels of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and correlated any changes with changes in edema formation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after transient ischemia in gerbils. Brain levels of LTC4 were observed to be increased at 1, 2, and 6 hours of reperfusion following 20 minutes of(More)
The recently developed controlled cortical-impact (CCI) model of brain injury in rats serves as an excellent tool to understand some of the neurochemical mechanisms mediating the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. In this study, rats were subjected to lateral CCI brain injury of low-grade severity. Their brains were frozen in situ at various times(More)
To test the effect of verapamil and diltiazem in acute stroke, three groups of mongrel cats of either sex underwent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via a transorbital approach under ketamine anesthesia. The first group served as controls, the second received an intravenous infusion of verapamil (0.1 microgram/kg/min), and the third received an(More)