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The MglA protein is the only known regulator of virulence gene expression in Francisella tularensis, yet it is unclear how it functions. F. tularensis also contains an MglA-like protein called SspA. Here, we show that MglA and SspA cooperate with one another to control virulence gene expression in F. tularensis. Using a directed proteomic approach, we show(More)
Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain gamma-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 A crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an(More)
We have previously reported that the DsbA signal sequence promotes efficient, cotranslational translocation of the cytoplasmic protein thioredoxin-1 via the bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. However, two commonly used signal sequences, those of PhoA and MalE, which promote export by a posttranslational mechanism, do not export(More)
Most asymptomatic individuals infected with HIV-1 have a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the virus Gag proteins which can be demonstrated in vitro. Epitopes have been mapped in p17 Gag and p24 Gag restricted by HLA-B8 (p17-3 and p24-13) and -B27 (p24-14). Viruses isolated from patients who make CTL responses to these peptides vary within the(More)
Legionella pneumophila promotes intracellular growth by moving bacterial proteins across membranes via the Icm/Dot system. A strategy was devised to identify large numbers of Icm/Dot translocated proteins, and the resulting pool was used to identify common motifs that operate as recognition signals. The 3' end of the sidC gene, which encodes a known(More)
The bacterial peroxiredoxin AhpC, a cysteine-dependent peroxidase, can be converted through a single amino acid insertion to a disulfide reductase, AhpC*, active in the glutathione and glutaredoxin pathway. Here we show that, whereas AhpC* is inactive as a peroxidase, other point mutants in AhpC can confer the in vivo disulfide reductase activity without(More)
We describe an Escherichia coli genetic screen that yields mutations affecting two different cellular processes: disulfide bond formation and membrane protein assembly. The mutants defective in disulfide bond formation include additional classes of dsbA and dsbB mutations. The membrane protein assembly defective mutants contain a mutation in the secA operon(More)
Interactions between hosts and pathogens are complex, so understanding the events that govern these interactions requires the analysis of molecular mechanisms operating in both organisms. Many pathogens use multiple strategies to target a single event in the disease process, confounding the identification of the important determinants of virulence. We(More)
The presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria is critical for viability. A conserved β-barrel membrane protein LptD (lipopolysaccharide transport protein D) translocates LPS from the periplasm across the outer membrane (OM). In Escherichia coli, this protein contains two disulfide bonds and forms the OM LPS(More)