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Incidence of EBL (blood lead > or =10 microg/dL) for children aged < or = 1.3 years in Washington, DC increased more than 4 times comparing 2001-2003 when lead in water was high versus 2000 when lead in water was low. The incidence of EBL was highly correlated (R2 = 0.81) to 90th percentile lead in water lead levels (WLLs) from 2000 to 2007 for children(More)
Parental tobacco use is a serious health issue for all family members. Child health care clinicians are in a unique and important position to address parental smoking because of the regular, multiple contacts with parents and the harmful health consequences to their patients. This article synthesizes the current evidence-based interventions for treatment of(More)
The GRADE Working Group is developing and evaluating a common, sensible approach to grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations in health care. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using letters, numbers, symbols or words to represent grades of evidence and recommendations. Using multiple strategies, we searched(More)
The Sex Stereotype Measure II (SSM II), a 32-item revision of the Williams, Bennett, and Best Sex Stereotype Measure, was developed to assess children's knowledge of conventional, sex-trait stereotypes defined by American university students. The procedure employed brief stories and human figure silhouettes which were individually administered to 5- and(More)
Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure of children and their families causes significant morbidity and mortality. In their personal and professional roles, pediatricians have many opportunities to advocate for elimination of SHS exposure of children, to counsel tobacco users to quit, and to counsel children never to start. This report discusses the harms(More)
To study what adolescents know or feel about testicular cancer (TC), 1,364 males, mean age 14.9 years, were given an 85-item pretest questionnaire. Although 28% had heard of TC, none knew how to perform a testicular self-examination (TSE). Analysis of the attitude questions showed that adolescents are afraid of getting TC, are unsure about whether it can be(More)
BACKGROUND Universal screening of sexually active adolescents for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) has been recommended in settings in which prevalence is 2% or greater. Although believed to be above 2%, the prevalence of CT and GC infection in private practice settings has not been clearly established and may affect screening(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy contributes to adverse infant health outcomes. Limited previous research has focused on identifying correlates of ETS avoidance. This study sought to identify proximal and more distal correlates of ETS avoidance early in pregnancy among African-American women. METHODS From a sample of(More)
The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between tobacco manufacturers and forty-six states bans manufacturers from targeting minors through advertising. To determine how youth targeting in magazine cigarette advertisements changed after the MSA, we analyzed magazine readership and cigarette ads in U.S. magazines from 1997 to 2000. In 2000 all three major(More)