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The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of cloud formation and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. We present experimental studies to show that soot particles acquire a large mass fraction of sulfuric acid(More)
Atmospheric aerosols often contain a substantial fraction of organic matter, but the role of organic compounds in new nanometer-sized particle formation is highly uncertain. Laboratory experiments show that nucleation of sulfuric acid is considerably enhanced in the presence of aromatic acids. Theoretical calculations identify the formation of an unusually(More)
Our ability to create systems with large amount of hardware parallelism is exceeding the average software developer's ability to effectively program them. This is a problem that plagues our industry. Since the vast majority of the world's software developers are not parallel programming experts, making it easy to write, port, and debug applications with(More)
TGF-beta1 is one of the most potent endogenous immune modulators of inflammation. The molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been well-studied; however, the potential effects of TGF-beta1 on other proinflammatory signaling pathways is less clear. In this study, using the(More)
Despite recent controversy about their function in some organisms, sirtuins are thought to play evolutionarily conserved roles in lifespan extension. Whether sirtuins can reverse aging-associated degeneration is unknown. Tissue-specific stem cells persist throughout the entire lifespan to repair and maintain tissues, but their self-renewal and(More)
Astrogliosis, a cellular reaction with specific structural and functional characteristics, represents a remarkably homotypic response of astrocytes to all kinds of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Astrocytes play diverse functions in the brain, both harmful and beneficial. Mounting evidence indicates that astrogliosis is an underlying component of(More)
alpha-Synuclein, a gene whose mutations, duplication, and triplication has been linked to autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (fPD), appears to play a central role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD (sPD) as well. Enhancement of neurodegeneration induced by mutant alpha-synuclein has been attributed to date largely to faster formation of(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is essential for cells to survive many environmental stresses. Thus, it may be necessary to buffer ubiquitin and proteasome pools against fluctuation. Proteasome levels are tightly regulated, and proteasome deficiency stimulates a stress response. Here we report a novel pathway of cellular response to ubiquitin(More)
The ubiquitin ligase Hul5 was recently identified as a component of the proteasome, a multisubunit protease that degrades ubiquitin-protein conjugates. We report here a proteasome-dependent conjugating activity of Hul5 that endows proteasomes with the capacity to extend ubiquitin chains. hul5 mutants show reduced degradation of multiple proteasome(More)
Neuronal death is known to trigger reactive microgliosis. However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. In this study we delineate the critical role of macrophage Ag complex-1 (MAC1), a member of the beta(2) integrin family, in mediating reactive(More)