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Two Krebs cycle genes, fumarate hydratase (FH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), are mutated in a subset of human cancers, leading to accumulation of their substrates, fumarate and succinate, respectively. Here we demonstrate that fumarate and succinate are competitive inhibitors of multiple α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases, including histone(More)
Fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by application of transcription factors octamer-binding protein 4 (Oct4), SRY-box containing gene 2 (Sox2), Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), and c-Myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) (OSKM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that exogenous Oct4 and Sox2 can bind(More)
Mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH1 and IDH2, have been reported in gliomas, myeloid leukemias, chondrosarcomas and thyroid cancer. We discovered IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in 34 of 326 (10%) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Tumor with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 had lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and higher 5-methylcytosine levels, as(More)
We have reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), are potent sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel activators. However, activation of cardiac and vascular KATP channels by endogenously produced EETs under physiological intracellular conditions has not been demonstrated(More)
The H3N2 influenza A/Fujian/411/02-like virus strains that circulated during the 2003-2004 influenza season caused influenza epidemics. Most of the A/Fujian/411/02 virus lineages did not replicate well in embryonated chicken eggs and had to be isolated originally by cell culture. The molecular basis for the poor replication of A/Fujian/411/02 virus was(More)
The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) induces the degenerative vacuolation of mammalian cells both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that plasma membrane cholesterol is essential for vacuolation of mammalian cells by VacA. Vacuole biogenesis in multiple cell lines was completely blocked when cholesterol was extracted selectively from(More)
The vascular endothelium is richly endowed with caveolae, which are specialized membrane microdomains that facilitate the integration of specific cellular signal transduction processes. We found that the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ (BK) channels are associated with caveolin-1 in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). OptiPrep gradient cell(More)
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, are candidates of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. We have previously reported that EETs are potent activators of cardiac ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, but their effects on the vascular K(ATP) channels are unknown. With the use of whole(More)
The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels play an important role in the regulation of cellular excitability in response to changes in intracellular metabolic state and Ca(2+) homeostasis. In vascular smooth muscle, BK channels are key determinants of vasoreactivity and vital-organ perfusion. Vascular BK channel functions are impaired in(More)