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Mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH1 and IDH2, have been reported in gliomas, myeloid leukemias, chondrosarcomas and thyroid cancer. We discovered IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in 34 of 326 (10%) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Tumor with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 had lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and higher 5-methylcytosine levels, as(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is considered an early event in AD pathology. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), the salt form of Glycyrrhizin, is known for its anti-inflammatory effects, resistance to biologic oxidation and membranous protection. In the present study, the(More)
BACKGROUND ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key regulator of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid transport. Previously, we have shown that inactivation of macrophage ABCA1 induces atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mice. However, the possibly beneficial effects of specific upregulation of macrophage(More)
The mechanisms by which microRNAs (miRNAs) affect cell fate decisions remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that miR-200a can suppress the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into endoderm and mesoderm. Interestingly, miR-200a directly targets growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), which is a key adaptor in the Erk signaling(More)
Genes encoding for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, IDH1 and IDH2, are frequently mutated in multiple types of human cancer. Mutations targeting IDH1 and IDH2 result in simultaneous loss of their normal catalytic activity, the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), and gain of a new function, the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). 2-HG is(More)
ABCA7, a close relative of ABCA1 which facilitates cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apoproteins, has been implicated in macrophage lipid efflux and clearance of apoptotic cells in in vitro studies. In the current study, we investigated the in vivo effects of macrophage ABCA7 deficiency on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Chimeras with dysfunctional(More)
AIM ABCA1 protects against atherosclerosis by facilitating cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in the arterial wall to extracellular apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. In contrast to apoA-I, apoE is secreted by macrophages and can, like apoA-I, induce ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Yet, the combined effect of macrophage ABCA1 and apoE on lesion(More)
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate (1, 3-BPG) to ADP, producing 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and ATP. PGK1 plays a key role in coordinating glycolytic energy production with one-carbon metabolism, serine biosynthesis, and cellular redox regulation. Here, we report that PGK1 is(More)
Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 mutations gain a new activity of reducing α-KG to produce D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), which is proposed to function as an oncometabolite by inhibiting α-KG dependent dioxygenases. We investigated the function of D-2-HG in tumorigenesis using IDH1 and IDH2 mutant cancer cell lines. Inhibition of(More)
Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapy for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Among stem cell varieties, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) possess many advantages, add a differential potential into neural cells, secrete a set of trophic factors and cytokines, regulate immunological function, and have therapeutic potential for(More)