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Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs)(More)
Pore-forming subunits of ion channels show channel activity in heterologous cells. However, recombinant and native channels often differ in their channel properties. These discrepancies are resolved by the identification of channel auxiliary subunits. In this review article, an auxiliary subunit of ligand-gated ion channels is defined using four criteria:(More)
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy kills tumor-cells by inducing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the efficient repair of tumors frequently prevents successful treatment. Therefore, identifying new practical sensitizers is an essential step towards successful radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the new hypothesis: identifying the miRNAs to target DNA DSB(More)
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and distinct classes of glutamate receptors coordinate synaptic transmission and spike generation upon various levels of neuronal activity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that loss of synaptic AMPA receptors increased kainate receptor activity in cerebellar(More)
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory transmission. AMPA receptors assemble with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits and function as native ion channels. However, the assembly and stoichiometry of AMPA receptor and TARP complexes(More)
BACKGROUND Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine(More)
The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides(More)
Although berberine alkaloids (BAs) are reported to be with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiviral activities, the interactions among BAs have not been elucidated. In the present study, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was chosen as a model organism, and modified broth microdilution was applied for the determination of the fluorescence(More)
Viroporins are a group of low-molecular-weight proteins containing about 50-120 amino acid residues, which are encoded by animal viruses. Viroporins are involved in several stages of the viral life cycle, including viral gene replication and assembly, as well as viral particle entry and release. Viroporins also play an important role in the regulation of(More)
To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb-Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine,(More)