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M059J and M059K cells were isolated from different portions of the same human malignant glioma. M059J cells are more radiosensitive than M059K cells due to the absence of DNA-PKcs and low-expression of ATM. The mechanism concerning the absence of DNA-PKcs in M059J is due to the frameshift mutation in PRKDC (DNA-PKcs gene); however, the reason for the(More)
In vivo niche plays an important role in determining the fate of exogenously implanted stem cells. Due to the lack of a proper chondrogenic niche, stable ectopic chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in subcutaneous environments remains a great challenge. The clinical application of MSC-regenerated cartilage in repairing defects in subcutaneous(More)
BACKGROUND The growing applications of nanotechnologic products, such as quantum dots (QDs), increase the likelihood of exposure. Furthermore, their accumulation in the bioenvironment and retention in cells and tissues are arousing increasing worries about the potentially harmful side effects of these nanotechnologic products. Previous studies concerning QD(More)
Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs)(More)
Perturbations in the adipocytokine profile, especially higher levels of leptin, are a major cause of breast tumor progression and metastasis; the underlying mechanisms, however, are not well understood. In particular, it remains elusive whether leptin is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we provide molecular evidence that leptin(More)
BACKGROUND Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell based therapies to cardiovascular disease such as infarction and atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms responsible for stem cell chemotaxis and homing remain unknown. Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1alpha) is involved in the process of atherogenesis. This(More)
The application of in vitro engineered cartilage has become a promising approach to repair cartilage defects. Nevertheless, the poor mechanical properties of in vitro engineered cartilage limit its potential for clinical applications. Studies have shown that the extracellular matrix (ECM) components are strongly correlated with the mechanical strength of(More)
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy kills tumor-cells by inducing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the efficient repair of tumors frequently prevents successful treatment. Therefore, identifying new practical sensitizers is an essential step towards successful radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the new hypothesis: identifying the miRNAs to target DNA DSB(More)
Pore-forming subunits of ion channels show channel activity in heterologous cells. However, recombinant and native channels often differ in their channel properties. These discrepancies are resolved by the identification of channel auxiliary subunits. In this review article, an auxiliary subunit of ligand-gated ion channels is defined using four criteria:(More)
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and distinct classes of glutamate receptors coordinate synaptic transmission and spike generation upon various levels of neuronal activity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that loss of synaptic AMPA receptors increased kainate receptor activity in cerebellar(More)