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Prototypes ground group communication and facilitate decision making. However, overly investing in a single design idea can lead to fixation and impede the collaborative process. Does sharing multiple designs improve collaboration? In a study, participants created advertisements individually and then met with a partner. In the <i>Share Multiple</i>(More)
Phase variance-based motion contrast imaging is demonstrated using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system for the in vivo human retina. This contrast technique spatially identifies locations of motion within the retina primarily associated with vasculature. Histogram-based noise analysis of the motion contrast images was used to reduce the(More)
We have developed Teachable Agent environments that use learning by teaching with metacognitive support to help middle school students learn about complex science topics. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, we have run studies that compare three systems where (i) students are taught by an agent, (ii) students teach a computer agent, and (iii)(More)
In this chapter, we argue that the learning sciences are poised for a " decade of synergy. " We focus on several key traditions of theory and research with the potential for mutually influencing one another in ways that can transform how we think about the science of learning, as well as how future educators and scientists are trained. The three major(More)
Phase variance-based motion contrast is demonstrated using two phase analysis methods in a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. Mobility contrast is demonstrated for an intensity matched Intralipid solution placed without flow within agarose wells. Vasculature oriented transversely to the imaging direction has been imaged for 3-4 dpf in vivo(More)
Experts and novices differ: The study of differences between experts and novices has revealed important distinctions in how they organize and apply their existing knowledge and how they learn new ideas. ▪ Experts have a mental framework for organizing their knowledge while novices do not have such a structure. Experts exhibit: o Effortless retrieval of(More)
  • Elizabeth Albro, Elizabeth Albro@ed Gov, John Wagster, John D Wagster@vanderbilt, Jason Tan, Yanna Wu +15 others
  • 2007
How can the cognitive science community take what they have learned from decades of laboratory research and make it useful to shaping instruction as it occurs in school? This question has been of interest over the past thirty years (e.g., Carver & Klahr, 2001), but much of what has been learned by cognitive scientists continues to remain within the(More)
7.1 Subgradient method Lecture 5 covered gradient descent, an algorithm for minimizing a smooth convex function f. In gradient descent, we assume f has domain R n , and choose some initial x (0) ∈ R n. We then iteratively take small steps in the direction of the negative gradient at the value of x (k) where k is the current iteration. Step sizes are chosen(More)