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How the thermodynamic stability effects of protein mutations (DeltaDeltaG) are distributed is a fundamental property related to the architecture, tolerance to mutations (mutational robustness), and evolutionary history of proteins. The stability effects of mutations also dictate the rate and dynamics of protein evolution, with deleterious mutations being(More)
Many, if not most, enzymes can promiscuously catalyze reactions, or act on substrates, other than those for which they evolved. Here, we discuss the structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications of this manifestation of infidelity of molecular recognition. We define promiscuity and related phenomena and also address their generality and(More)
Members of the serum paraoxonase (PON) family have been identified in mammals and other vertebrates, and in invertebrates. PONs exhibit a wide range of physiologically important hydrolytic activities, including drug metabolism and detoxification of nerve agents. PON1 and PON3 reside on high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 'good cholesterol') and are involved in(More)
Most protein mutations, and mutations that alter protein functions in particular, undermine stability and are therefore deleterious. Chaperones, or heat-shock proteins, are often implicated in buffering mutations, and could thus facilitate the acquisition of neutral genetic diversity and the rate of adaptation. We examined the ability of the Escherichia(More)
The kinetic parameters of enzymes are key to understanding the rate and specificity of most biological processes. Although specific trends are frequently studied for individual enzymes, global trends are rarely addressed. We performed an analysis of k(cat) and K(M) values of several thousand enzymes collected from the literature. We found that the "average(More)
Serum paraoxonases (PONs) are detoxifying lactonases that were first identified in mammals. Three mammalian families are known, PON1, 2, and 3 that reside primarily in the liver. They catalyze essentially the same reaction, lactone hydrolysis, but differ in their substrate specificity. Although some members are highly specific, others have a broad(More)
The design of new enzymes for reactions not catalysed by naturally occurring biocatalysts is a challenge for protein engineering and is a critical test of our understanding of enzyme catalysis. Here we describe the computational design of eight enzymes that use two different catalytic motifs to catalyse the Kemp elimination-a model reaction for proton(More)
The traditional view that proteins possess absolute functional specificity and a single, fixed structure conflicts with their marked ability to adapt and evolve new functions and structures. We consider an alternative, "avant-garde view" in which proteins are conformationally dynamic and exhibit functional promiscuity. We surmise that these properties are(More)
The past few years have seen significant advances in research related to the 'latent skills' of enzymes - namely, their capacity to promiscuously catalyze reactions other than the ones they evolved for. These advances regard (i) the mechanism of catalytic promiscuity - how enzymes, that generally exert exquisite specificity, promiscuously catalyze other,(More)
The distribution of fitness effects of protein mutations is still unknown. Of particular interest is whether accumulating deleterious mutations interact, and how the resulting epistatic effects shape the protein's fitness landscape. Here we apply a model system in which bacterial fitness correlates with the enzymatic activity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase(More)