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We study the problem of detecting objects in still, gray-scale images. Our primary focus is the development of a learning-based approach to the problem that makes use of a sparse, part-based representation. A vocabulary of distinctive object parts is automatically constructed from a set of sample images of the object class of interest; images are then(More)
We analyze some of the fundamental design challenges and misconceptions that underlie the development of an efficient and robust NER system. In particular, we address issues such as the representation of text chunks, the inference approach needed to combine local NER decisions, the sources of prior knowledge and how to use them within an NER system. In the(More)
In order to respond correctly to a free form factual question given a large collection of texts, one needs to understand the question to a level that allows determining some of the constraints the question imposes on a possible answer. These constraints may include a semantic classification of the sought after answer and may even suggest using different(More)
Disambiguating concepts and entities in a context sensitive way is a fundamental problem in natural language processing. The comprehensiveness of Wikipedia has made the online encyclopedia an increasingly popular target for disambiguation. Disambiguation to Wikipedia is similar to a traditional Word Sense Disambiguation task, but distinct in that the(More)
Many AI problems, when formulated, reduce to evaluat ing the probabi l i ty that a preposit ional expression is t rue. In this paper we show tha t this problem is computat ional ly int ractable even in surpr is ingly restricted cases and even if we settle for an approx imat ion to this probabi l i ty . We consider various methods used in approximate(More)
In addition to information, text contains attitudinal, and more specifically, emotional content. This paper explores the text-based emotion prediction problem empirically, using supervised machine learning with the SNoW learning architecture. The goal is to classify the emotional affinity of sentences in the narrative domain of children’s fairy tales, for(More)
Most probabilistic inference algorithms are specified and processed on a propositional level. In the last decade, many proposals for algorithms accepting first-order specifications have been presented, but in the inference stage they still operate on a mostly propositional representation level. [Poole, 2003] presented a method to perform inference directly(More)
We study generalization properties of the area under the ROC curve (AUC), a quantity that has been advocated as an evaluation criterion for the bipartite ranking problem. The AUC is a different term than the error rate used for evaluation in classification problems; consequently, existing generalization bounds for the classification error rate cannot be(More)