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welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare beneets were cut, welfare time limits were added, and welfare cases were terminated. Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases(More)
This study investigates how parental employment affects child cognitive development. The results indicate that maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life has a small negative effect on the predicted verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a larger detrimental impact on the reading and mathematics achievement of 5 and 6 year olds(More)
We examine trends in self-employment among white and black men from 1910 to 1990 using Census and CPS microdata. Self-employment rates fell over most of the century and then started to rise after 1970. For white men, we find that the decline was due to declining rates within industries, but was counterbalanced somewhat by a shift in employment towards high(More)
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency. Abstract Relatively little is known about the impact of welfare reform on children's living arrangements , which was an important focus of reformers. We(More)
Note: The authors are collaborators on a study of inequality in early childhood education and care, funded by the Russell Sage Foundation as part of its Social Inequality program. We would like to thank Eric Wanner and the Foundation for their support and would also like to thank Jay Bainbridge, Se-Ook Jeong, Katherine Magnuson, and Sakiko Tanaka for their(More)
A near real time airborne monitoring system for monitoring of natural disasters, mass events, and large traffic disasters was developed in the last years at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This system consists of an optical wide-angle camera system (3K system), a SAR sensor, an optical and microwave data downlink, an onboard processing unit and ground(More)
The usage of airborne camera systems for near real time applications will increase in the near future. This paper purposes a new hardware/software architecture to establish real time computation of images obtained from the DLR wide area airborne 3K-camera system. The main applications of our system are e.g. to monitor automotive traffic, to determine the(More)
The goal of subspace learning is to find a k-dimensional subspace of R d , such that the expected squared distance between instance vectors and the sub-space is as small as possible. In this paper we study the sample complexity of subspace learning in a partial information setting, in which the learner can only observe r ď d attributes from each instance(More)
We present an automatic traffic monitoring approach using data of an airborne wide angle camera system. This camera, namely the " 3K-Camera " , was recently developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). It has a coverage of 8 km perpendicular to the flight direction at a flight height of 3000 m with a resolution of 45 cm and is capable to take images at a(More)