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We present a revision of the 1978 reformulated theory of helplessness and depression and call it the hopelessness theory of depression. Although the 1978 reformulation has generated a vast amount of empirical work on depression over the past 10 years and recently has been evaluated as a model of depression, we do not think that it presents a clearly(More)
Televised public service announcements are video ads that are a key component of public health campaigns against smoking. Understanding the neurophysiological correlates of anti-tobacco ads is an important step toward novel objective methods of their evaluation and design. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to(More)
AIMS (i) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity and (ii) to assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males,(More)
PURPOSE To estimate the proportion of U.S. youth that exhibits unrealistic fatalism about its future (not expecting to live past age 30), and to test predictions about risk factors for this expectation. METHODS Four waves of a nationally representative telephone survey from 2002 to 2005 with youth ages 14 to 22 (N = 4201) were analyzed using logistic(More)
BACKGROUND Although research has established the existence of an association between smoking and depression among adolescents, researchers have not reached consensus on the nature of the association. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, to examine the nature of the relationship between smoking and depression in adolescence,(More)
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young people in the United States. The goal of this study was to identify risk factor profiles of teen and young adult drivers involved in crashes. General demographic and behavioral as well as driving-related factors were considered. Analysis of a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S.(More)
There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient(More)
OBJECTIVE Portrayal of tobacco use in films has been causally linked to youth smoking initiation. However, findings regarding trends in portrayal in US films since 1950 are inconsistent, potentially due to differences in sampling densities, intercoder reliabilities and time periods covered. The present study was designed to overcome these inconsistencies(More)
Digital media provide increased opportunities for both marketing and social transmission of risky products and behavior. We briefly review what is known about adolescent exposure to favorable presentations of addictive substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, as well as behaviors such as gambling, on social and other online media. Our(More)