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OBJECTIVE We estimated the global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables, an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and compared its impact with that of other major risk factors for disease. METHODS The burden of disease attributable to suboptimal intake of fruit and vegetables was(More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of death, the level of alcohol consumption at which risk is least, and how these vary with age and sex. DESIGN Analysis using published systematic reviews and population data. SETTING England and Wales in 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Death from any of the following causes: cancer(More)
We reviewed all English-language articles on associations among circulating levels of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and their binding proteins (IGFBP), polymorphisms in their genes, and breast cancer risk. In premenopausal women, five of eight IGF-I studies and four of six IGFBP-3 studies of circulating levels found that women in the highest(More)
The WHO recently conducted, within its Global Burden of Disease 2000 Study, a Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) to estimate the global health effect of low fruit and vegetable intake. This paper summarizes the methods used to obtain exposure data for the CRA and provides estimates of worldwide fruit and vegetable intakes. Intakes were derived from 26(More)
OBJECTIVE Alcohol consumption has been reported to have both beneficial and harmful effects on stroke occurrence. Several studies have demonstrated a significant association with heavy drinking, but the evidence linking light-to-moderate alcohol consumption still remains unclear. This study, using a systematic review of the published literature, aimed to(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the upper cervical cord area (UCCA) is influenced by disease effect in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), using statistical modeling to account for potential covariates. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cohort of 39 patients were studied cross-sectionally within three years of first symptom onset (median disease(More)
The magnetization transfer ratio reflects the integrity of tissue structure, including myelination and axonal density. Mean magnetization transfer ratio fell in 18 untreated patients with multiple sclerosis both in normal appearing grey (-0.25 pu/year, p < 0.001) and white matter (-0.12 pu/year, p = 0.004). Conversely, mean magnetization transfer ratio was(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters such as mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) assess aspects of structural integrity within tissue. In relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS), abnormalities in normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) have been shown cross-sectionally. The evolution of these abnormalities over time is unclear.(More)
Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord(More)