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OBJECTIVE We estimated the global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables, an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and compared its impact with that of other major risk factors for disease. METHODS The burden of disease attributable to suboptimal intake of fruit and vegetables was(More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were(More)
Previous in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H–MRSI) studies have found reduced levels of N–acetyl–aspartate (NAA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, the surrounding normal–appearing white matter (NAWM) and cortical grey matter (CGM), suggesting neuronal and axonal dysfunction and loss. Other metabolites, such as myoinositol (Ins),(More)
The magnetization transfer ratio reflects the integrity of tissue structure, including myelination and axonal density. Mean magnetization transfer ratio fell in 18 untreated patients with multiple sclerosis both in normal appearing grey (-0.25 pu/year, p < 0.001) and white matter (-0.12 pu/year, p = 0.004). Conversely, mean magnetization transfer ratio was(More)
We reviewed all English-language articles on associations among circulating levels of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and their binding proteins (IGFBP), polymorphisms in their genes, and breast cancer risk. In premenopausal women, five of eight IGF-I studies and four of six IGFBP-3 studies of circulating levels found that women in the highest(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of death, the level of alcohol consumption at which risk is least, and how these vary with age and sex. DESIGN Analysis using published systematic reviews and population data. SETTING England and Wales in 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Death from any of the following causes: cancer(More)
Abnormalities within normal–appearing grey and white matter (NAGM and NAWM) occur early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be detected in–vivo using the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR). To better characterize the rates of change in both tissues and to ascertain when such changes begin, we serially studied a cohort of minimally(More)
Although there is substantial brain grey matter pathology in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), there has been limited investigation of its contribution to disability. This study investigated the correlation of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measures taken from brain grey matter, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and lesions with(More)
The WHO recently conducted, within its Global Burden of Disease 2000 Study, a Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) to estimate the global health effect of low fruit and vegetable intake. This paper summarizes the methods used to obtain exposure data for the CRA and provides estimates of worldwide fruit and vegetable intakes. Intakes were derived from 26(More)
AIMS To quantify mortality attributable to any alcohol consumption, and mortality attributable to consumption above different levels. DESIGN We related all-cause mortality to alcohol consumption using cause-specific mortality models from a systematic review and using the distribution of alcohol consumption and causes of death by age and sex in England and(More)