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Although nicotine is now well recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant, it also may have neuroprotectant properties. In the current study, we used PC12 cells to characterize the specific developmental phases in which these effects are expressed. In undifferentiated cells, nicotine had a modest effect on DNA synthesis (10% reduction), which was(More)
Previously, we found that exposure of neonatal rats to chlorpyrifos (CPF) produced brain cell damage and loss, with resultant abnormalities of synaptic development. We used the same biomarkers to examine prenatal CPF treatment so as to define the critical period of vulnerability. One group of pregnant rats received CPF (subcutaneous injections in dimethyl(More)
The use of dexamethasone (DEX) to prevent respiratory distress in preterm infants is suspected to produce neurobehavioral deficits. We used PC12 cells to model the effects of DEX on different stages of neuronal development, utilizing exposures from 24 h up to 11 days and concentrations from 0.01 to 10 microM, simulating subtherapeutic, therapeutic, and(More)
Fetal and childhood exposures to widely used organophosphate pesticides, especially chlorpyrifos (CPF), have raised concerns about developmental neurotoxicity. Previously, biomarkers for brain cell number, cell packing density, and cell size indicated that neonatal rats were more sensitive to CPF than were fetal rats, yet animals exposed prenatally still(More)
The widely used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), elicits neurobehavioral abnormalities after apparently subtoxic neonatal exposures. In the current study, we administered 1 or 5 mg/kg/day of CPF to pregnant rats on gestational days 9-12, the embryonic phase spanning formation and closure of the neural tube. Although there were no effects on(More)
Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that disrupts brain development by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that control neural cell replication and differentiation. We administered nicotine to pregnant Rhesus monkeys from gestational day 30 through 160 by continuous infusion, achieving maternal plasma(More)
The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) adversely affects mammalian brain development through multiple mechanisms. To determine if CPF directly affects neuronal cell replication and phenotypic fate, and to identify the vulnerable stages of differentiation, we exposed PC12 cells, a model for mammalian neurodevelopment, to CPF concentrations(More)
The developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) involves multiple mechanisms, thus rendering the immature brain susceptible to adverse effects over a wide window of vulnerability. Earlier work indicated that CPF exposure at the neural tube stage elicits apoptosis and disrupts mitotic patterns in the brain primordium but that rapid recovery ensues(More)
In adolescents, the symptoms of nicotine dependence can appear well before the onset of habitual smoking. We investigated short-term nicotine exposure in adolescent rats for corresponding cholinergic alterations. Beginning on postnatal day 30, rats were given a 1-week regimen of nicotine infusions or twice-daily injections, at doses (0.6, 2, and 6(More)
The organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), is a developmental neurotoxicant. In cell cultures, CPF affects gliotypic cells to a greater extent than neuronotypic cells, suggesting that glial development is a specific target. We administered CPF to developing rats and examined the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocytic marker.(More)