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Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, sand filters, and peat filters near Duluth, Minnesota, were studied to determine their seasonal performance for removing pathogens from wastewater. Influent was a high-strength septic tank effluent (mean values of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were 294, 96, and 15 mg/L,(More)
Three-dimensional orientation data, with observations as 3 × 3 rotation matrices, have applications in areas such as computer science, kinematics and materials sciences, where it is often of interest to estimate a central orientation parameter S represented by a 3 × 3 rotation matrix. A well-known estimator of this parameter is the projected arithmetic mean(More)
The atomic force microscope is an instrument that is widely used in fields such as biology, chemistry and medicine for imaging at the atomic level. In this work, we consider a specific mode of AFM usage, known as the dynamic mode where the AFM cantilever probe is forced sinusoidally. In the absence of interaction with the sample being imaged, the cantilever(More)
The advancement in microarray technology enables the simultaneous measurement of expression levels of thousands of genes. However, due to the relatively high cost of making a replicate in a microarray experiment, the number of replicates in a single experiment is typically small. This results in the “small n, large p” problem for statistical inferences,(More)
This study seeks to relate farmer attitudes, perceptions, and management characteristics to field soil quality and laboratory fertility indicators. Farmer interviews were conducted to document recent practices on the farm as well as farmer attitudes about farming. To obtain soil quality measures, both the Natural Resource Conservation Service's field soil(More)
The sampling window method of Hall, Jing and Lahiri (1998) is known to consistently estimate the distribution of the sample mean for a class of long-range dependent processes, generated by transformations of Gaussian time series. This note shows that the same nonparametric subsampling method is also valid for an entirely different category of long-range(More)
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